Presentation on theme: "Fluency Grades 2-5 Planning Session Presentation October 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Fluency Grades 2-5 Planning Session Presentation October 2010
The Big Five Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension
Fluency is not just fast reading. Reading Accurately Reading at a suitable rate (not too slowly or too fast) Reading with appropriate prosody (expression, intonation, pausing/phrasing, sounding like natural spoken language)
No Fluency = No Comprehension To become proficient readers who fully understand what they read, the whole process of decoding needs to become automatic Fluent readers are free to concentrate on meaning/comprehension
Reasons some students struggle to become fluent readers (Allington-2009) Much of what struggling readers are given to read is too difficult Struggling readers read much less than more capable readers Teachers often ask struggling readers to read aloud and then automatically interrupt that reading to correct reading errors. Students come to rely on the teacher to correct them and don’t develop self- monitoring strategies.
Instructional Focus for Fluency Discuss and model ending punctuation – expression and intonation Pause longer at a period or other end punctuation Raise voice at question mark Use expression at exclamation point Pause at commas or other internal punctuation (ie. Semicolon)
Instructional Focus for Fluency, ctd. At quotation marks, say the words as the character might say them Pause at ellipsis Pause at dashes
Instructional Focus for Fluency, ctd. Discuss and model words that are written in a special way – underlined, boldfaced, ALL CAPS. Talk about reading rate – normal speaking rate Discuss and model intonation – voices change with different end punctuation, in dialogue, and with cues from author (ie. “screamed Sam” vs. “pleaded Jane”
Instructional Focus for Fluency Work on phrase cue boundaries Example: In the summertime, /Josh likes to play baseball / at the park / down the street / from his house.
Techniques for Practicing Fluency Repeated readings Partner reading Tape assisted reading Reader’s Theater Radio Reading Reading easy texts Model fluent, expressive reading – READ ALOUD!
Techniques for Practicing Fluency, ctd. Echo Reading Choral Reading High Frequency Words – Word Walls Fluency Development Lessons
Fluency Development Lesson Format Teacher chooses short, high interest passage – often a poem Teacher reads passage aloud several times, modeling fluent reading Meaning and vocabulary development built through class discussion Teacher and class do choral reading of passage – can have different children or groups read different parts
Fluency Development Lesson Format, ctd. Children are paired and take turns reading passage to each other – 3 times each – and help and support each other Class gathers and children can volunteer to read passage aloud to class or to other adults in school Allow child to take passage home to read to whomever will listen Adapted from The Fluent Reader – Tim Rasinski
Assessing Fluency Assess fluency once each season (beginning of quarters 2, 3, and 4) Use a passage at child’s reading level (Gates will supply passages ) Have two copies, one for child to read, and one for you to mark. Have the student read for one minute – use a timer. (School will provide )
Mark any errors made by the reader Calculate Words per minute (Total Words Read - # of Errors = WPM) To calculate accuracy - # of words read divided by total # of words = percent of accuracy Assessing accuracy, pace or rate, and expression provides information for instruction. (Can use rubric from handout)
Wrapping it up... Fluency is the bridge between decoding and comprehension. Fluency involves reading accurately and smoothly while attending to the prosodic features of the text. When readers are fluent, they can concentrate on comprehending what they read, develop self confidence, and enjoy and learn from reading. And, the more children read, the better they’ll read. -SRA Imagine It! Author, Marsha Roit