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ITIS 1210 Introduction to Web-Based Information Systems Chapter 44 How Firewalls Work How Firewalls Work.

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Presentation on theme: "ITIS 1210 Introduction to Web-Based Information Systems Chapter 44 How Firewalls Work How Firewalls Work."— Presentation transcript:

1 ITIS 1210 Introduction to Web-Based Information Systems Chapter 44 How Firewalls Work How Firewalls Work

2 Introduction  The Internet is a dangerous place  Hackers can  Damage your programs/data  Steal  Your identity  Your credit information  Use your computer for other purposes  Distributed attacks on other computers  Spam  Illegal activities

3 Introduction  Choices are to  Stay off the Internet  Protect yourself  Firewalls are one kind of protection  Software/hardware  Monitors the computer-Internet interface

4 How Corporate Firewalls Work  The firewall acts as a shield  Separates the internal environment from the Wild-Wild-Web  Inside, normal Internet technologies are available  Email  Databases  Software

5 How Corporate Firewalls Work  Access to the outside is controlled by a choke router or a screening router  Examines packets traveling in both directions and can learn  Source & destination  Protocols being used  Ports being accessed

6 How Corporate Firewalls Work  Some packets permitted to continue, others blocked  Some services such as logins might be blocked  Suspicious locations could be blocked  System administrators set these rules

7 How Corporate Firewalls Work  A bastion host is a heavily protected server  Lots of security built in  Primary point of contact for connections coming in from the Internet  Internal computers or hosts inside the firewall cannot be contacted directly  Might also be a proxy server  For WWW requests from inside the firewall

8 How Corporate Firewalls Work  Bastion host is part of a perimeter network in the firewall  Not on the corporate network itself  Adds another layer of security  One more element the bad guys have to break down to get into the corporate network

9 How Corporate Firewalls Work  An exterior screening router or access router screens packets between the Internet and the perimeter network  Again,  Adds another layer of protection  Can implement the same rules as the choke router  If the choke router fails the screening router may still be able to block unauthorized access

10 How Personal Firewalls Work  What personal resources are attractive to hackers?  High-speed connections  “Always on” network connections like Roadrunner  Poorly protected computers that are vulnerable to exploits

11 How Personal Firewalls Work  Remember ports?  Virtual connections between your computer and the Internet  Each port has a specific purpose  Personal firewalls work by examining packets for information including  Source and destination IP address  Port numbers

12 How Personal Firewalls Work  Firewalls can be configured to block packets address to specific ports  Block port 21 and FTP can’t be used to attack your PC  Trojan horse software can permit a hacker access to your PC  Firewalls can detect when software attempts to send packets  If you don’t approve, the packets are blocked

13 How Personal Firewalls Work  Firewalls can block specific IP addresses as well  Your personal history might be a source of UP addresses to be blocked  NAT (Network Address Translation) is a technique whereby your true IP address is shielded from the Internet  It can’t be seen by anyone outside your home network so you become invisible

14 How Personal Firewalls Work  Firewalls can log probes or just plain traffic  These logs can be examined for clues about hacker’s efforts

15 How Proxy Servers Work  A proxy server is one that acts as an intermediary between its clients and external services  System administrators can establish many types of services  They decide which will go through proxy servers  Many types of proxy servers are available

16 How Proxy Servers Work  A Web proxy handles Web traffic  Commonly serves as a Web cache  Could also provide content filtering by denying access to specific URLs  Some reformat Web pages for a certain audience (e.g., for cell phones)  To the internal user the use of the proxy is transparent  But it controls the interaction

17 How Proxy Servers Work  A proxy server can be used to log Internet traffic for analysis purposes  Could record keystrokes  Also how the external server reacted to those keystrokes  Could log  IP addresses  Date and time of access  URLS  Number of bytes downloaded

18 How Proxy Servers Work  Could be used to implement security schemes  Permits files to be transferred internally  But blocks access to external sites  Common use is caching  Speeds up performance by keeping copies of frequently-requested Web pages  Requests fulfilled by proxy eliminating need to contact an external server

19 How Proxy Servers Work  Other types of proxy servers  An anonymizing proxy server  Protects your identity by making you seem anonymous to servers  Vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attack  Since they can read and modify messages  Could intercept your credit card or logon information

20 How Proxy Servers Work  Circumventor – Method of defeating blocking policies implemented using proxy servers  Web-based page that allows access to blocked sites by routing it through an unblocked site  Famous example was elgooG, a mirror of Google  Search engine that only recognized search terms entered backwards

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