Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Political Culture and Political Socialization

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "Political Culture and Political Socialization"— Presentation transcript:

1 Political Culture and Political Socialization
Chapter Three Political Culture and Political Socialization Comparative Politics Today, 9/e Almond, Powell, Dalton & Strøm Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Longman © 2008

2 Political Culture and Political Socialization
Each nation has its own political norms that influence how people think and act about politics. The way political institutions function at least partially reflects the public’s attitudes, norms, and expectations. Political culture: public attitudes toward politics and their role within the political system Political socialization: how individuals form their political attitudes and thus, collectively, how citizens form their political culture; we conclude by describing the major trends in political culture in the world politics today


4 Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture
A nation’s political culture includes its citizens’ orientations at three levels: The political system The political and policymaking process Policy outputs and outcomes

5 Mapping the Three Levels of Political Culture
The system level involves how people view the values and organizations that comprise the political system. The process level includes expectations of how politics should function and individuals’ relationship to the political process. The policy level deals with the public’s policy expectations for the government.

6 The System Level It is difficult for any political system to endure if it lacks the support of its citizens. Feelings of national pride are considered an affective, emotional tie to a political system.


8 The System Level Feelings of popular legitimacy are another foundation for a successful political system. Citizens may grant legitimacy to a government for different reasons. Tradition, ideology, elections, or religion In systems with low legitimacy, people often resort to violence or extra-governmental actions to solve political disagreements.

9 The Process Level The second level of the political culture involves what the public expects of the political process. Broadly speaking, three different patterns describe the citizens’ role in the political process. Participants are involved as actual or potential participants in the political process. Subjects passively obey government officials and the law, but they do not vote or actively involve themselves in politics. Parochials are hardly aware of government and politics.


11 The Process Level Hypothetical examples: How are citizen types distributed within these examples? Modern industrial democracy Industrialized authoritarian society Authoritarian society that is party traditional and partly modern Democratic pre-industrial system How does social and economic modernization affect the distribution of citizen types and the political norms of a system? What has been the nature of modernization across the world?

12 The Policy Level What is the appropriate role of government?
Policy expectations vary across the globe. Some policy goals such as economic well-being are valued by nearly everyone. Variation in terms of what is expected relates to a nation’s circumstances and cultural traditions. One of the basic measures of government performance is its ability to meet the policy expectations of its citizens. Expectations regarding the functioning of government: outputs (providing welfare and security) or process features (rule of law and procedural justice)


14 Consensual or Conflictual Political Cultures
When a country is deeply divided in its political values and these differences persist over time, distinctive political subcultures may develop. They have sharply different points of view on some critical political matters, such as the boundaries of the nation, the nature of the regime, or the correct ideology. Sometimes historical or social factors will generate different cultural trajectories. Ethnic, religious, or linguistic identities Migration

15 Why Culture Matters Cultural norms typically change slowly and reflect stable values. It encapsulates the history, traditions, and values of a society. Congruence theory The distribution of cultural patterns is typically related to the type of political process that citizens expect and support. Do democracies create a participatory democratic public, or does a political culture lead to a democratic political system? It works both ways. Political culture can build common political community, but it can also have the power to divide.

16 Political Socialization
Political cultures are sustained or changed as people acquire their attitudes and values. Political socialization refers to the way in which political values are formed and political culture is transmitted from one generation to the next. Most children acquire their basic political values and behavior patters at a relatively early age. Some attitudes will evolve and change throughout life.


18 Political Socialization
Three general points about socialization: Socialization can occur in different ways. Direct socialization Socialization is a lifelong process. Patterns of socialization can be either unifying or divisive.

19 Agents of Political Socialization
Individuals, organizations, and institutions that influence political attitudes. Family Schools Religious institutions Fundamentalism Peer groups Social class Interest groups Political parties Mass media Global influence; most people in the world watch television to learn about the world

20 Direct Contact with the Government
In modern societies, the wide scope of governmental activities bring citizens into frequent contact with bureaucratic agencies. Personal experiences are powerful agents of socialization.

21 Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures
Democratization Marketization Greater public acceptance of free markets and private profit incentives, rather than a government-managed economy Globalization

22 Trends Shaping Contemporary Political Cultures
Political culture is not a static phenomenon. Encompasses how the agents of political socialization communicate and interpret historic events and traditional values Important to understand Influences how citizens act, how the political process functions, and what policy goals the government pursues

Download ppt "Political Culture and Political Socialization"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google