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John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar

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1 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Sustainability Workshop – Hobart 1st May, 2008

2 Urgent Fixes are Needed
Water 1/3 of world population stressed for water By /3 due to global warming Waste Around 600 million tonnes. The underlying moleconomic flow is poisoning our world CO2 Causing global temperature rises Energy Peak oil has passed and fossil fuel energy costs set to rise. Food Growing food shortages due to climate change and production of bio fuels All these problems are interconnected To solve these problems we need to change the way we do things and what we do them with!

3 The Atmosphere Source: IPCC
The Challenge is to Keep the Atmosphere Stable. To do this we must take a long term view and engineer a new way for us to live. Source: Sam Nelson Greenbase Even if the annual flow of emissions was frozen today, the level of greenhouse gas in the atmosphere would still reach double its pre-industrial levels by In fact, emissions are increasing rapidly and the level of 550 ppm could be reached as early as 2035. Source: 17 Feb 08 Stern review Executive Summary Page 3 para 6

4 CO2 in the Atmosphere Year CO2 in the Atmosphere Gigaton CO2
BAU Emissions 450 ppm ? CO2 in the Atmosphere

5 The Kyoto Protocol A treaty intended to implement the objectives and principles agreed in the 1992 UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). Requires governments to agree to quantified limits on their greenhouse gas emissions, through sequential rounds of negotiations for successive commitment periods. The Kyoto treaty is the result of political negotiation and diplomatic compromise and on the surface not a lot more than short term promises to reduce emissions that make politicians look good that their successors cannot possibly keep. It is not a strategy for survival in the future. A long term view is required. Constraint alone is not going to work

6 We are Hooked On Fossil Fuel Energy
Assuming Kyoto commitments are met (which is unlikely) it is estimated that global emissions will be 41% higher in 2010 than in 1990 ( Ford, M., Matysek, A, Jakeman, G., Gurney, A & Fisher B. S. 2006, Perspectives on International Climate Change, paper presented at the Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics society 50th Annual Conference). Emissions targets are unlikely to be met whilst fossil fuels remain A solution is needed of the utmost urgency to preserve history for many, many generations to come. Sir Richard Branson at the launch of the Virgin Earth Prize Gaia Engineering is the way to do so – John Harrison

7 Correlation Between WIP and Emissions
World Industrial Product (deflated world `GDP' in real value - i.e. World physical production). CO2 emissions (in CO2 mass units: Doubling time = 29 years. Data: CDIAC; statistics: GDI. The correlation between the WIP and the CO2 emissions is very high. The correlation coefficient r= 0.995, i.e. practically 1 (total correlation). Di Fazio’s work demonstrates that we cannot achieve sustainability through efficiency alone. Di Fazio, Alberto, The fallacy of pure efficiency gain measures to control future climate change, Astronomical Observatory of Rome and the Global Dynamics Institute

8 Synopsis We are too many and our influence too great. We must therefore accept our role of maintaining “spaceship earth” as planetary engineers and find ways of maintaining the level of carbon dioxide, oxygen and other gases in the atmosphere at desirable levels. We are too hooked on fossil fuels and cannot possibly arrest the alarming increases in carbon dioxide currently occurring through efficiency, emissions reduction or substitution by renewables. Constraint will not lift the third world to our level of affluence. We must find new technology platforms that will otherwise we have no hope of controlling population

9 Synopsis We have a good chance of preserving the future if we mimic nature by finding uses for carbon and other wastes. Uses for carbon and other wastes must result in a real value that puts profit in the pocket of a large number who will as a consequence wish to engage otherwise they cannot be implemented on the massive scale required. The markets created must be insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing. Building with man made carbonate is doable and most likely presents the only option we have for saving the planet from runaway global warming until such time as safe and reliable forms of energy alternative to fossil fuels can be developed, we more seriously take our relationship with the planet and our role as planetary engineers and custodians.

10 Affect of Leakage on Geosequestration
"The assumption of exclusive reliance on storage may be an extreme one, however the example illustrates that emphasis on energy efficiency and increased reliance on renewable energy must be priority areas for greenhouse gas mitigation. The higher the expected leakage rate and the larger the uncertainty, the less attractive geosequestration is compared to other mitigation alternatives such as shifting to renewable energy sources, and improved efficiency in production and consumption of energy." Source: CANA (2004). Carbon Leakage and Geosequestration, Climate Action Network Australia. Downloadable Model at

11 Size of Carbon Sinks Modified from Figure 2 Ziock, H. J. and D. P. Harrison. "Zero Emission Coal Power, a New Concept." from by the inclusion of a bar to represent sedimentary sinks

12 Carbon Sink Permanence
Carbonate sediment 40,000,000 Gt Sequestration Permanence and time Plants 600 Gt Soils and Detritus 1600 Gt Fossil Fuels 8,000 Gt Methane Clathrates 100,000 Gt

13 Gaia Engineering will Modify the Carbon Cycle
Photosynthesis by plants and algae Consumed by heterotrophs (mainly animals) Organic compounds made by autotrophs Organic compounds made by heterotrophs Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration burning and decay Limestone coal and oil burning Gaia Engineering, (Greensols, TecEco Kiln and Eco-Cements) Decay by fungi and bacteria CO2 in the air and water More about Gaia Engineering at

14 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Can Building and Construction Represents an Insatiable, Large and Indefinitely Continuing Market for Carbonate? The built environment is made of materials and is our footprint on earth. It comprises buildings and infrastructure. Construction materials comprise 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Around 25 billion tonnes of building materials are used annually on a world wide basis. The single biggest materials flow (after water) is concrete at around 17 billion tonnes or > 2 tonnes per man, woman and child on the planet. 40% of total energy in the industrialised world (researchandmarkets) THE IMPORTANCE OF MATERIALS Materials are our footprint on the planet and of first consideration in our quest to devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. Building materials comprise: 70% of materials flows (buildings, infrastructure etc.) 40-50% of waste that goes to landfill (15 % of new materials going to site are wasted.) Why not use magnesium carbonate aggregates and building components from Greensols and Eco-Cements from TecEco to bind them together?

15 The Earth System Atmosphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere
The earth system consists of positive and negative feedback loops. Small changes caused by man such as CO2 and other climate forcing as well as pollution impact right across all interconnected systems throughout the global commons. Atmosphere Anthropo-sphere Biosphere Geosphere Hydrosphere

16 Earth Systems Science Earth Systems
Atmospheric composition, climate, land cover, marine ecosystems, pollution, coastal zones, freshwater salinity etc. Source graphic: NASA Earth system science treats the entire Earth as a system in its own right, which evolves as a result of positive and negative feedback between constituent systems (Wiki). These systems are ideally homeostatic.

17 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
The Techno-Process Detrimental affects on earth systems Move billion tonnes Use some 50 billion tonnes Biosphere Anthroposphere Take Geosphere Waste Materials Manipulate Make and Use Underlying the techno-process that describes and controls the flow of matter and energy through the supply and waste chains are molecular stocks and flows. If out of synch with earth systems these moleconomic flows have detrimental affects. THE TECHNO-PROCESS Most of you will have by now come to realise that there is a process often described as the “take use waste process” that I call the techno process. Unfortunately there are affects on global systems that are detrimental. To reduce the impact on earth systems new technical paradigms need to be invented and cultural changes evolve that result in materials flows with underlying molecular flows that mimic or at least do not interfere with natural flows and that support rather than detrimentally impact on earth systems. I am contemplating profitable bottom up change of immense proportion and importance. John Harrison, TecEco

18 Detrimental Impacts of the Techno-Process
Detrimental Linkages that affect earth system flows Take manipulate and make impacts End of lifecycle impacts Use impacts. Materials are in the Techno-Sphere Utility zone There is no such place as “away” Materials are everything between the take and waste and affect earth system flows. Greater Utility Less Utility

19 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Moleconomic Flows Take → Manipulate → Make → Use → Waste [ ←Materials flow→ ] [ ← Underlying molecular flow → ] Moleconomics is the study of the form of atoms in molecules, their flow, interactions, balances, stocks and positions. What we take from the environment around us, how we manipulate and make materials out of what we take and what we waste result in underlying molecular flows that affect earth systems. These flows should mimic, balance or minimally interfere with natural flows. If the underlying molecular flows are “out of tune” with nature there is damage to the environment e.g. heavy metals, cfc’s, c=halogen compounds and CO2 MOLECONOMIC FLOWS Underlying the flow of materials through the techno process is a moleconomic flow of molecules that is out of tune with the rest of the planet and causing damage to the environment. If you want to know more about the science of moleconomics please go to our web site and look under projects. To fix the molecular flows that are impacting our planet we must first fix the materials flows in a bottom up approach

20 Innovative New Materials - the Key to Sustainability
The choice of materials for building and construction controls emissions, lifetime and embodied energies, user comfort, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. By changing how we make “things” and what we make them with we can fix the underlying molecular flows that are destroying the natural homeostasis of our planet

21 Economically Driven Sustainability
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Economically Driven Sustainability New, more profitable technical paradigms are required that result in more sustainable and usually more efficient moleconomic flows that mimic natural flows or better, reverse our damaging flows. ECONOMICALLY DRIVEN SUSTAINABILITY Our approach must not only be holistic, but also economic if we are to have any hope of success. Working for sustainability market forces will make all the difference. The challenge is to move the supply and demand of resources towards more sustainable outcomes by stimulating and harnessing human behaviours which underlay economic demand phenomena, through cultural change push by governments and other leaders, and real improvement in technical and other properties as I will explain in the next slide. Sustainable processes like the new TecEco technologies are more efficient and therefore more economic. $ - ECONOMICS - $ Change is only possible economically. It will not happen because it is necessary or right.

22 Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Consider Sustainability as Where Culture and Technology Meet Increase in demand/price ratio for greater sustainability due to cultural change. $ Supply Equilibrium Shift Greater Value/for impact (Sustainability) and economic growth ECONOMICS We must rapidly move both the supply and demand curves for sustainability Demand CULTURAL CHANGE AND PARADIGM SHIFTS IN TECHNOLOGY Changes in the market interaction of demand and supply reducing energy and resource usage and detrimental linkages with the planet can be achieved through cultural change and innovative changes in the technical paradigm. Increase in supply/price ratio for more sustainable products due to technical innovation. # A measure of the degree of sustainability is where the demand for more sustainable technologies is met by their supply.

23 Changing the Technology Paradigm
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Changing the Technology Paradigm It is not so much a matter of “dematerialisation” as a question of changing the underlying moleconomic flows. We need materials that require less energy to make them, do not pollute the environment with CO2 and other releases, last much longer and that contribute properties that reduce lifetime energies. The key is to change the technology paradigms “By enabling us to make productive use of particular raw materials, technology determines what constitutes a physical resource1” Pilzer, Paul Zane, Unlimited Wealth, The Theory and Practice of Economic Alchemy, Crown Publishers Inc. New York.1990 Or more simply – the technical paradigm determines what is or is not a resource!

24 Cultural Change is Happening!
Al Gore (SOS) CSIRO reports STERN Report Lots of Talkfest IPCC Report Political change Branson Prize Live Earth (07/07/07) The media have an important growing role

25 Changing the Techno-Process
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Take => manipulate => make => use => waste Driven by fossil fuel energy with take and waste impacts. By changing the technology paradigms we can change the materials flows and thus the underlying molecular flows. Reduce Re-use Recycle This is biomimicry! INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY – CHANGING THE TECHNO-PROCESS I am sure you will have all heard of the three R’s. Reduce, reuse and recycle, to which some add re-make. Industrial ecology, the idea that the waste output of one kind of activity can be resource input for another, is most easily achieved in the construction industry. The materials used determine many properties including weight, embodied energies, fuel related and chemical emissions, lifetime energies, user comfort and health, use of recycled wastes, durability, recyclability and the properties of wastes returned to the bio-geo-sphere. If you cannot recycle for chemical property recycle on the basis of physical properties the material would contribute to a composite. There is huge scope for sequestration and conversion of waste to resource given the massive size of the materials flows involved in the built environment. With the right materials technology, because of its sheer size, the built environment could reduce the take from the bio-geo-sphere and utilise many different wastes including carbon dioxide => Materials => The Flow of Atoms and Molecules in the global commons Moleconomics

26 Nature is our Mentor (Biomimicry)
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Nature is our Mentor (Biomimicry) All that is alive is very efficiently in balance with surrounding conditions including all else that is alive. The waste from one plant or animal is the food or home for another. Photosynthesis balances respiration. Growth balances disintegration. There is a strong need for similar efficiency and homeostatic balance in the techno process. To balance emissions of carbon dioxide with uses and waste nothing that has no natural role on the planet. By studying Nature we learn who we are, what we are and how we are to be.” (Wright, F.L. 1957:269) BIOMIMICRY The philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet. Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another. We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. Nature provides us with survival knowledge from a four billion year old experiment. It is this knowledge, not our genetics that is the key. John Harrison

27 Biomimicry - Geomimicry
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Biomimicry - Geomimicry The term biomimicry was popularised by the book of the same name written by Janine Benyus Biomimicry is a method of solving problems that uses natural processes and systems as a source of knowledge and inspiration. It involves nature as model, measure and mentor. Geomimicry is similar to biomimicry but models geological rather than biological processes. The theory behind biomimicry is that natural processes and systems have evolved over several billion years through a process of research and development commonly referred to as evolution. A reoccurring theme in natural systems is the cyclical flow of matter in such a way that there is no waste of matter and very little of energy. Geomimicry is a natural extension of biomimicry and applies to geological rather than living processes All natural processes are very economical. We must also be MUCH more economical

28 Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Biomimicry - Ultimate Recyclers As peak oil starts to cut in and the price of transport rises sharply We should not just be recycling based on chemical property requiring transport to large centralised sophisticated and expensive facilities We should be including CO2 and wastes based on physical properties as well as chemical composition in composites whereby they become local resources. Jackdaws and bower bird recycle all sorts of things they find nearby based on physical property. The birds are not concerned about chemical composition and the nests they make could be described as a composite materials. TecEco cements are benign binders that can incorporate all sort of wastes without reaction problems and bind strongly to them by polar bonding with them. We can do the same as the Jackdaw or bower bird

29 Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Localized Low Transport Embodied Energy Materials No longer an option? As the price of fuel rises past peak oil, the use of localised low embodied energy materials for construction will have to be considered. We will have to mimic the jackdaw or bower bird.

30 Utilizing Carbon and Wastes
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar During earth's geological history large tonnages of carbon were put away as limestone and other carbonates and as coal and petroleum by the activity of plants and animals. Sequestering carbon in calcium and magnesium carbonate materials and other wastes in the built environment mimics nature in that carbon is used in the homes or skeletal structures of most plants and animals. CO2 In eco-cement concretes the binder is carbonate and the aggregates are preferably carbonates and wastes. This is “geomimicry” CO2 BIOMIMICRY The philosophy and chemistry of TecEco technology is backed by the greatest and longest experiment of all time – that of life on this planet. Little is wasted in nature, the waste from one living thing being the home or food for another. We must, like nature, devise ways of using carbon dioxide and other wastes. CO2 C CO2 Waste Pervious pavement

31 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Geomimicry There are grams of magnesium and about .4 grams of calcium in every litre of seawater. There is enough calcium and magnesium in seawater with replenishment to last billions of years at current needs for sequestration. To survive we must build our homes like these seashells using CO2 and alkali metal cations. This is geomimicry Carbonate sediments such as these cliffs represent billions of years of sequestration and cover 7% of the crust.

32 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Large tonnages of carbon (7% of the crust) were put away during earth’s geological history as limestone, dolomite and magnesite, mostly by the activity of plants and animals. Orders of magnitude more than as coal or petroleum! Shellfish built shells from carbon and trees turn it into wood. These same plants and animals wasted nothing The waste from one is the food or home for another. Because of the colossal size of the flows involved the answer to the problems of greenhouse gas and waste is to use them both in an insatiable, large and indefinitely continuing market. Such a market exists for building and construction materials.

33 Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers?
John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Geomimicry for Planetary Engineers? Such a paradigm shift in resource usage will not occur because it is the right thing to do. It can only happen economically. To put an economic value on carbon and wastes We have not choice but to invent new technical paradigms such as offered by TecEco and the Global Sustainability Alliance (Gaia Engineering). Evolving culturally to effectively use these technical paradigms By using carbon dioxide and other wastes as building materials we can economically reduce their concentration in the global commons. Materials are very important!

34 Why Magnesium Carbonates?
Seawater Reference Data g/l H20 Cation radius (pm) Chloride (Cl--) 19 167 Sodium (Na+) 10.5 116 Sulfate (S04--) 2.7 ? Magnesium (Mg++) 1.29 86 Calcium (Ca++) 0.412 114 Potassium (K+) 0.399 152 Because of the low molecular weight of magnesium, it is ideal for scrubbing CO2 out of the air and sequestering the gas into the built environment: Due to the lighter molar mass of magnesium more CO2 is captured than in calcium systems as the calculations below show. At 2.09% of the crust magnesium is the 8th most abundant element Sea-water contains 1.29 g/l compared to calcium at .412 g/l Magnesium compounds have low pH and polar bond in composites making them suitable for the utilisation of other wastes.

35 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Making Carbonate Building Materials to Solve the Global Warming Problem John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Magnesium materials from Gaia Engineering are potential low cost. New kiln technology from TecEco will enable easy low cost simple non fossil fuel calcination of magnesium carbonate to make binders with the CO2 recycling to produce more carbonate building material to be used with these binders. How much magnesium carbonate would have to be deposited to solve the problem of global warming? The annual flux of CO2 is around 12 billion tonnes ~= billion tonnes magnesite The density of magnesite is 3 gm/cm3 or 3 tonne/metre3 22.9/3 billion cubic metres ~= 7.63 cubic kilometres of magnesite would have to be deposited each year. Compared to the over seven cubic kilometres of concrete we make every year, the problem of global warming looks surmountable. If magnesite was our building material of choice and we could make it without releases as is the case with Gaia Engineering, we have the problem as good as solved! We must build with carbonate and waste

36 Only the Built Environment is Big Enough
The built environment is our footprint, the major proportion of the techno-sphere and our lasting legacy on the planet. It comprises buildings and infrastructure Source of graphics: Nic Svenningson UNEP SMB2007

37 Building is Going Ballistic!
Source of graphic: Rick Fedrizzi SMB 2007 The relative impact of the built environment is rising as the East catches up with the West!

38 John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar
Huge Potential for Sequestration and Waste Utilisation in the Built Environment John Harrison Presentation CIA (WA) Seminar Reducing the impact of the take and waste phases of the techno-process by. including carbon in materials they are potentially carbon sinks. including wastes for physical properties as well as chemical composition they become resources. re engineering materials to reduce the lifetime energy of buildings A durable low pH high bonding binder system is required for effective waste utilisation such as TecEco Tec and Eco-Cements Many wastes including CO2 can contribute to physical properties reducing lifetime energies CO2 CO2 UTILISING WASTE IN CITIES TecEco advocate the development of materials that include waste based on physical as well as chemical properties and that reduce the lifetime energy of buildings by introducing new properties. CO2 C CO2 Waste Pervious pavement

39 Implementation of Carbon Trading
The system must serve different requirements Incentives/costs as a result of increases or decreases in emissions National accounting Not impose a burden on The building construction and Rental industries (Affordability crisis anyway) Owners Comply with the Kyoto Protocol E.g. no double counting

40 WBCSD & WRI Published some guidelines that the Australian government seem to be following. According to the methodology: Emissions can be accounted for on a Control basis, or At an organisational or financial level Equity basis As in consolidations

41 WBCSD & WRI Everything must be accounted for at and organisational or equity level in order to apply incentives or disincentives, but at a national level double counting must be eliminated To help delineate direct and indirect emission sources, improve transparency, and provide utility for different types of organizations and different types of climate policies and business goals, three “scopes” (scope 1, scope 2, and scope 3) have been defined:

42 WBCSD & WRI Scopes Scope 1 Covers direct emissions from sources within the boundary of an organisation, such as fuel combustion and manufacturing processes. Scope 2 Covers indirect emissions from the consumption of purchased electricity, steam or heat produced by another organisation. Scope 2 emissions result from the combustion of fuel to generate the electricity, steam or heat and do not include emissions associated with the production of fuel. Scopes 1 and 2 are carefully defined to ensure that two or more organisations do not report the same emissions under the same scope (i.e. so double counting can be eliminated at a national level). Scope 3 Includes all other indirect emissions that are a consequence of an organisation’s activities but are not from sources owned or controlled by the organisation. These estimates are provided for information only as Scope 3 emissions and are not be required to be reported under the National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Act 2007 , but may be reported on a voluntary basis.

43 Implementation in Building and Construction
Characterised by Long supply and waste chains with many different operators all contributing to emissions Fragmented representation at both the building and construction as well as use levels Some scope 1 emissions but mostly scope 2 and 3.

44 The Built Environment (RMIT 30-50%) (GBCA 45%) Materials in use have a big influence on scope 2 emissions AASMIC believe materials (using factors) should be included (scope 3) Scope 3 emissions approx 10% (Interpreted from RMIT Report) Mainly lifetime heating, cooling and other running costs Nick Svenningson UNEP at SMB2007

45 Players BPIC (
The Building Products Innovation Council will be a major driving force in advocating a technical and building regulatory environment that will support a world class Australian building product manufacturing and supply base NATSPEC ( Founded in 1975, is a not-for-profit organisation that is owned by the design, build, construct and property industry through professional associations and government property groups. It is impartial and is not involved in advocacy or policy development. NATSPEC’s major service is the comprehensive national specification system endorsed by government and professional bodies. The specification is for all building structures with specialist packages for architects, interior designers, landscape architects, structural engineers, service engineers and domestic owners.

46 Players Green Building Council of Australia (
The GBCA is a national, not-for-profit organisation that is committed to developing a sustainable property industry for Australia by encouraging the adoption of green building practices. It is uniquely supported by both industry and governments across the country. GECA ( Good environmental choice - Committed to credible product information for sustainable development      Asbec ( Claims to be a peak body? Many others

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