Liberal Feminists Radical Feminists Marxist / Socialist Feminists Black Feminists Post-Feminists
Ann Oakley Liberal feminists campaign for equality between men and women e.g. for equal pay. They believe that gender inequalities exist because of socialisation and the way that males and females are taught to behave differently. Can you think of examples? Liberal feminists concede that relationships within families are becoming more symmetrical.
Andrea Dworkin Radical feminists believe that men are the enemy and that women would be better off if they were freed from men's control and had nothing to do with them! Radical feminists are famous for campaigning on issues such as domestic violence, rape and pornography. They believe family and marriage are patriarchal institutions which need to be overturned. Greer (2000) advocates ‘matrifocal’ households as an alternative to the nuclear family. Some advocate ‘political lesbianism.’
Veronica Beechey Marxist/Socialist feminists focus on how women are exploited by capitalism. They put in hours and hours of unpaid labour through housework and childcare, performing several functions for capitalism. They argue that women suffer greater exploitation than men because they are paid less on average. Women are a Reserve Army of Labour who can be hired and fired as necessary. Fran Ansley (1972) claims that wives soak up the frustration and alienation that their partners feel.
Nira Yuval-Davies Black feminists have criticised other feminists for ignoring the position of black women. They argue that black women are doubly disadvantaged in society as they face both sexism and racism.
Catherine Hakim Women create inequalities for themselves. For example, women choose to have children, they choose to take time out to bring them up and they choose to work part time to help look after them. Therefore it is these 'choices' which lead women to be lower paid and have less successful careers.