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CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Dominance Right Brain –non-verbal –Concrete –Holistic (big pic) –Intuitive –spontaneous Left Brain –Logical –Language –Verbal.

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Presentation on theme: "CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Brain Dominance Right Brain –non-verbal –Concrete –Holistic (big pic) –Intuitive –spontaneous Left Brain –Logical –Language –Verbal."— Presentation transcript:



3 Brain Dominance Right Brain –non-verbal –Concrete –Holistic (big pic) –Intuitive –spontaneous Left Brain –Logical –Language –Verbal –Sequential/linear (Math) –Abstract…math/science –Planner


5 Objectives To learn protective parts/features of CNS To learn structure and function of the Spinal Cord To understand the brain structure and function as well as development.

6 Protection of the CNS Bones Meninges

7 Protection of the CNS The brain & spinal cord are protected by bones, membranes, and fluid Bones A. Bones –*8 skull bones encase the brain –*30 vertebrae encase the spinal cord

8 Can you name the bones?

9 Meninges –B.) Meninges - Membranes surrounding CNS 3 Layers encasing the brain –a.) Dura mater »outermost membrane: attached to periosteum of the skull »contains many blood vessels & nerves »tough, white fibrous connective tissue

10 –b.) Arachnoid Mater »middle layer »thin net-like membrane »No blood vessels »Sub-arachnoid space lies deep to this layer and is filled with CSF which serves as a cushion for brain

11 –c.) Pia Mater »inner layer that clings to brain surface »very thin delicate connective tissue »many nerves & blood vessels = nourishment »dips into grooves and contours inner layer that clings to brain surface –erves & blood vessels = nourishment»dips into grooves and contours–erves & blood vessels = nourishment»dips into grooves and contours



14 Meningitis What does the word Mean? Caused by: –Bacteria or virus Affects: –Mainly arachnoid and pia maters –Younger or older generations –People with suppressed immune systems Complications of disease: –Loss of vision, hearing paralysis, mental retardation…death



17 C. Ventricles –Interconnected cavities within the cerebral hemispheres and brain stem –Continuous with central canal of spinal cord –Filled with CSF cerebral spinal fluid

18 –D. Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) –Secreted by Choroid Plexus –Circulation: Ventricles 1&2 --> 3rd --> 4th --> central canal --> reabsorbed into bloodstream –Approx. 1 liter is secreted daily: Secreted and reabsorbed continuously –Functions: cushion & circulation of nutrients/wastes


20 The Brain Structures and Functions

21 Brain Lobes


23 Forebrain prosencepahlon Includes hypothalamus, thalamus and cerebrum

24 Midbrain mesencephalon Connects cerebrum to spinal cord Reflex center for eye and some head movements

25 Hindbrain rhombencephalon Cerebellum Medulla oblongata Pons


27 Cerebrum Largest part of brain Contains many folds and bumbs –Sulci vs. gyri Corpus callosum is found b/t the L and R Responsible for reasoning, intellectual fxn and critical thinking

28 Brain Dominance Right Brain –non-verbal –Concrete –Holistic (big pic) –Intuitive –spontaneous Left Brain –Verbal –Sequential/linear –Abstract…math/science –Logical –Planner

29 Cerebral Cortex Thin layer (2-5mm); largest and most anterior structure of brain Contains 75% of neuron cell bodies in NS Memory, attn, thought processes, language

30 cerebellum Regulates balance body position Posture Muscle coordination


32 Medulla oblongata Vital Reflex center –Visceral activities: –blood pressure, respiratory –cardiac Part of the brain stem Injuries often fatal

33 Corpus callosum Deep bridge of nerve fibers Connects L and R brain Intercommunication b/t hemispheres is not completely understood


35 Optic chiasma

36 Limbic System

37 Limbic Includes the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala Important in emotions and formation of memories

38 Limbic Hypothalamus Part of diencephalon Secretes hormones –Dopamine, oxytocin, growth hormones Regulates body temp, heart rate, hunger/weight, alertness Center involved with emotion

39 Thalamus Part of diencephalon Motor control Receives visual and auditory senses

40 Pineal gland Produces melatonin; controls circadian rhythm Size of a pea; 8mm Think about it… –Stimulated by dark –Inhibited by light

41 c Pineal body

42 Pituitary gland Endocrine gland; secretes hormones Examples – growth hormones; –regulate breast milk production; sexual hormones –possibly blood pressure

43 Pons b/t midbrain and medulla oblongata Regulates rate and depth of breathing Homeostatic mechanisms

44 Mammillary body Named for resemblance of 2 breast Associated with memory Damaged by alcoholic intoxication

45 Hippocampus Part of limbic system Emotions, inhibition Long term memory Alzheimer’s disease –First to be damaged If damaged, what do you predict would be the results?

46 Reticular formation Brainstem and diencephalon Alertness, arousal, sensory integration, motivation connects to areas in the thalamus, hypothalamus, cortex and cerebellum

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