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Skeletal, Muscular and Immune Systems Review. The process in which provides the movement of the body or body parts from 1 place to another is know as.

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Presentation on theme: "Skeletal, Muscular and Immune Systems Review. The process in which provides the movement of the body or body parts from 1 place to another is know as."— Presentation transcript:

1 Skeletal, Muscular and Immune Systems Review

2 The process in which provides the movement of the body or body parts from 1 place to another is know as _________________. Locomotion

3 Describe some functions of the skeletal system. Movement Protects organs and tissues Produces blood cells Gives body shape and support Stores calcium and phosphorus

4 Identify the two types of bone marrow and the function of each type. Yellow marrow and red marrow. Yellow marrow is made up of fat cells. Red marrow produces blood cells.

5 Identify the type of muscle observed in each picture. Skeletal muscle Cardiac muscle Smooth muscle

6 Identify the muscle type described. 1.Attached to bones. 2.Involuntary and striated. 3.Lines the digestive tract and blood vessels. 4.Voluntary. 5.Only found in the heart. 6.Not striated and involuntary. 7.Branched fibers. Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Skeletal Cardiac Smooth Cardiac

7 Identify the structure being described. 1.Thick layer of tissue that covers the ends of bones. 2.Thick bands of tissue that attach muscles to bones. 3.Any place where 2 bones meet. 4.A tissue that contracts. 5.Part of the bone that produces blood cells. 6.Gives the body shape. 7.Bones that protect the spinal cord. 8.One of the minerals that keeps bones strong. 9.Bones that protect your lungs. 10.One of the strongest bones in your body, the thigh bone. 11.Breast bone that helps protect the heart. Cartilage Tendons Joint Muscle Red marrow Skeleton Vertebrae Calcium or phosphorus Rib cage Femur Sternum

8 Identify the structure being described. 1.Tough bands of tissue that holds bones together. 2.Upper arm bone also known as the funny bone. 3. Involuntary muscles of the digestive system. 4.Part of the bone that stores fat. 5.Involuntary muscles of the heart. 6.Gland that regulates calcium metabolism. 7.Also known as voluntary muscles. 8.Gland that stimulates the elongation of bones. 9.Also known as the collar bone. 10.Bones that protect the brain. Ligaments Humerus Smooth muscle Yellow marrow Cardiac muscle Parathyroids Skeletal Pituitary Clavicle Cranium

9 Identify each structure in the diagram and describe its function.. A – Skeletal muscle Attach to bone to aid in movement C - Tendon Connect muscle to bone B - Ligament Connect bone to bone

10 The tissue that cushions the vertebrae and provides flexibility to joints is known as _______. cartilage

11 Which statement describes ligaments? 1.They are made of cartilage and cushion the vertebrae. 2.They are made of tough, elastic tissue and join bones. 3.They are made of tough, inelastic tissue and connect muscles. 4.They are striped and controlled by the nervous system.

12 Which of the following actions requires the muscular and skeletal systems to work together? 1.breaking down food into usable pieces 2.division of cells 3.eliminating waste 4.running from a predator

13 What is a function of bones? 1.It serves as a site for the synthesis of hormones. 2.It supports and protects body structures. 3.It contracts to aid in locomotion. 4.It provides vitamins during periods of physical stress.

14 Cranium Clavicle Sternum Rib cageHumerus Spinal column (vertebrae) Pelvic bone Femur Patella

15 Explain how wbc’s can protect the body against disease. Wbc’s produce antibodies and memory cells when a pathogen (antigen) enter the body.

16 Describe the difference between active and passive immunity. Active immunity is long-term while passive immunity is temporary. Active immunity results from the body producing antibodies and memory cells. Passive immunity results from the individual receiving antibodies.

17 Give an example of a process that brings about ACTIVE immunity. Person can come into contact with the pathogen (get sick). A person can get a vaccine.

18 1.What is bacteria an example of? Pathogen 2. Identify the structures labeled X in the diagram. Support your answer. Antibodies. They are proteins found on the surface of pathogens. X

19 3. Describe what occurs when this pathogen enters the body. An immune response. Antibodies and memory cells are produced. Antibodies bind to the antigen to help destroy the pathogen. Memory cells remain in the blood to produce antibodies if exposed to the SAME pathogen. X

20 Give an example a method that brings about PASSIVE immunity. Babies receive mother’s antibodies when developing in the uterus when mom is pregnant. Babies receive mother’s antibodies from breast milk. Adults can receive antibodies orally or by injection.

21 What substances are formed by the human body in response to foreign proteins entering the body? Antibodies and memory cells

22 An individual who has had chicken pox rarely gets this disease again. What type of immunity is represented? Active Immunity

23 Explain the contents of a vaccine. Dead or weak PATHOGEN

24 How does a measles vaccine protect a child entering school against the measles? Vaccine is injected. The body produces antibodies and memory cells. Antibodies attach to antigens on the pathogen to help kill the pathogen. Memory cells remain in your blood to “remember” the pathogen.

25 Which type of immunity is when your body makes the antibodies and memory cells after recovering from a disease or getting a vaccination? Active Immunity

26 The immune system of humans may respond to chemicals on the surface of an invading organism. What are these chemicals on the surface called? Explain what will happen once these chemicals enter the body. Antigens The body will produce anibodies and memory cells.

27 Which substances may form in the human body due to invaders entering the blood? Anibodies and memory cells.

28 1.What is an allergy? 2.What occurs when someone experiences an allergic reaction? An oversensitivity to a HARMLESS substance. Ex: pollen, dust, peanuts, animal dander The body produces chemicals called HISTAMINES.

29 1.What pathogen causes AIDS? 2.What is the effect of AIDS on the body? HIV (which is a virus) It weakens the immune system so the body cannot fight pathogens well.

30 Describe cancer. Uncontrolled cell growth A tumor may form.

31 Describe autoimmune disease. The immune system attacks the body’s own cells. Examples: rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, intestinal bowel disease, diabetes

32 Which statement best describes what happens when someone receives a vaccination? 1.The ability to fight disease will increase due to antibodies received from the pathogen. 2.The ability to fight disease caused by the pathogen will increase due to antibody production. 3.The ability to produce antibodies will decrease after the vaccination. 4.The ability to resist most types of diseases will increase.

33 Which activity is not a function of white blood cells in response to a pathogen? 1.engulfing these bacteria 2.producing antibodies to act against this type of bacteria 3.preparing for future invasions of this type of bacteria 4.speeding transmissions of nerve impulses to detect these bacteria

34 The immune system of humans may respond to chemicals on the surface of a pathogen by 1.releasing hormones that break down these chemicals 2.synthesizing antibodies that mark these organisms to be destroyed 3.secreting antibiotics that attach to these organisms 4.altering a DNA sequence in these organisms

35 Vaccinations help prepare the body to fight invasions of a specific pathogen by 1.inhibiting antigen production 2.stimulating antibody production 3.inhibiting white blood cell production 4.stimulating red blood cell production

36 Which statement best describes an immune response? 1. It always produces antibiotics. 2. It usually involves the recognition and destruction of pathogens. 3. It stimulates asexual reproduction and resistance in pathogens. 4. It releases red blood cells that destroy parasites.

37 Which phrase does not describe a way the human body responds to fight disease? (1) destruction of infectious agents by white blood cells (2) production of antibodies by white blood cells (3) increased production of white blood cells (4) production of pathogens by white blood cells

38 A person with AIDS is likely to develop infectious diseases because the virus that causes AIDS (1) destroys cancerous cells (2) damages the immune system (3) increases the rate of antibody production (4) increases the rate of microbe destruction

39 In some individuals, the immune system attacks substances that are usually harmless, resulting in 1. an allergic reaction 2. a form of cancer 3. an insulin imbalance 4. a mutation

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