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For Language Arts Enrichment and Cross Curriculum Writing Hilary Hardin NGA LMS.

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Presentation on theme: "For Language Arts Enrichment and Cross Curriculum Writing Hilary Hardin NGA LMS."— Presentation transcript:

1 for Language Arts Enrichment and Cross Curriculum Writing Hilary Hardin NGA LMS

2 – Is it a fragment? Remember that all true sentences MUST HAVE 3 COMPONENTS: a subject, a verb, and a complete thought. – Example: Before Carolyn begins studying. Carolyn is the subject and begins is the verb, but the phrase is a fragment because it makes no sense by itself.

3 – Is it a run on? A comma cannot join 2 simple sentences. The following methods are acceptable – A COMMA AND A CONJUNCTION » My dad bought me a car, but I have to pay him back. – A SEMICOLON » In one way Ethel has proven to be a very sweet dog; she always greets Carl with a big sloppy kiss. – A SEMICOLON, CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB, and COMMA » I don’t think I’ll be joining you for dinner; however, Susan may be feeling well enough to meet you there now.

4 Commas are too wimpy to hold 2 independent clauses together. Connect them with semicolons instead. Comma Splice: You need to work out more, your arms are really weak. Corrected Sentence: You need to work out more; your arms are really weak.

5 A SUBORDINATE CLAUSE before an independent one needs a comma. – Ex: If you want to win, you must work hard. Words that commonly begin a subordinate clause: if, when, since, because, as, as if, after, although, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, whenever, wherever, while, before, even though, in order that, in order to (SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS— ADVERB CLAUSES)


7 Use a semicolon to replace a comma when items in a series already have commas. – EX: I have lived in Huntsville, Alabama; Shelbyville, Tennessee; and Tallahassee, Florida.

8 Use a comma with a conjunction ONLY when the conjunction joins 2 sentences or 3 or more items in a series. Use a semicolon to join 2 sentences on the same topic.

9 Quotation marks are to be used with DIRECT QUOTES—someone's EXACT words. Ex: Joe said, " I hate pickles." INDIRECT QUOTES do NOT require quotation marks. EX: Joe said that he hates pickles.

10 Use a colon at the END OF AN INDEPENDENT CLAUSE if a LIST of 3 or more things is to follow. – EX: Bring these items in your backpack: binder, pencils, books, and lunch box.

11 ITALICIZE WHOLE WORKS or WHOLE PIECES, names of vehicles, art and music. If the work is NOT a smaller part of something else, underline it. Ex: New York Times, Romeo and Juliet, Airforce One, Titanic. UNDERLINING IS THE SAME AS ITALICIZING WHEN A PERSON IS HANDWRITING SOMETHING. Use QUOTATION MARKS for works that are a smaller part of something larger. – “Article Title” (part of Magazine)

12 Proper nouns (names of people and things) need to be capitalized. Different from—not different than

13 Too: also or extent – EX: too much cake or me too To: preposition – EX: to the store (has an object) To: infinitive (to plus a verb) – I was ready to eat. Two: 2 – EX: She is two years old.

14 Where: place – EX: Where is she? Were: past tense plural of to be. – EX: We were going to the beach. Your: possessive pronoun – EX: your book You're: contraction for you are – EX: You're wrong.

15 There: a place – EX: I live there. There: begins a sentence – EX: There is one child. Their: possessive pronoun – EX: their home They're: contraction for THEY ARE – EX: They're here.

16 AVOID THESE COMMON PROBLEMS! Make sure each PRONOUN AGREES with its ANTECEDENT. Be especially careful of pronouns that end in BODY, ONE, or THING; they are ALWAYS singular and take singular verbs and pronouns. EX: Everyone must wash HIS hands.

17 When EACH and EVERY are attached to a compound subject they make it SINGULAR. – EX: EACH BOY and GIRL listen to the presentation.

18 Avoid a TENSE SHIFT. – Ex: I ATE a burger, LISTEN to a CD, WATCH television, and MAKE my bed. Use the same tense throughout your sentence. – Always match the first one used. EX: I ATE a burger, LISTENED to a CD, WATCHED television, and MADE my bed.

19 PARALLELISM Parallelism: Each item in a series should FOLLOW THE SAME PATTERN. – EX: Jeremy drank some eggnog, then some presents needed to be wrapped, he took a walk, and listened to Christmas music. – SHOULD BE CHANGED TO: Jeremy drank some eggnog, wrapped some presents, took a walk, and listened to Christmas music. – The pattern is verb-direct object, verb-direct object, and verb-direct object.

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