Presentation on theme: "Murder Prevention in Domestic Violence DS SHARON STRATTON"— Presentation transcript:
1 Murder Prevention in Domestic Violence DS SHARON STRATTON
2 Definition Domestic Violence Any incident of threatening behaviour, violence or abuse (psychological, physical, sexual, financial or emotional) between adults, aged 18 and over, who are or have been intimate partners or family members, regardless of gender and sexuality. (Family members are defined as mother, father, son, daughter, brother, sister and grandparents, whether directly related, in-laws or step-family) (Association of Chief Police Officers,2004)Need to be mindful of ‘honour’ based violence where victims often under 18Does not include victims/suspects under 18. Record non-crime/crime but staff directed to include under 18s,FM,HBVintervention to prevent escalation. all cases within definition tagged dv.(fm or hbv additional flags).Definition wide includes same sex, female onMale and interfamilial violence.
3 Prevalence 113,000+ incidents reported 2008/2009 20% of all violent crime in MPSHomicide rates:42 – 2003/4/534 – 2005/619 – 2006/7/8/940% murder rate nationallyLinks to other criminality (Child abuse, rape, gun crime, etc)6 murders last year the majority are interfamilial where suspectsuffers from mental health issues. 5 where sons have murdered Father/stepfather - often linked to drug misuse.2007:EQUAL NUMBER OF MALE VICTIMS MAJORITY OF WHOM WERE PREVIOUSLY ABUSIVE TO THEIR PARTNER OR FAMILY MEMBER(UNREPORTED)
4 MPS RESPONSECommunity Safety Units (CSUs) established 1998 as a result of recommendations in the Stephen Lawrence Enquiry(Macpherson)Delivery of the Mayors DV strategy for London, Home Office National Action Plan and other National strategiesViolent Crime Directorate centrally Investigate Hate crime,domestic violence,forced marriage, adult/carer abuse and so-called honour based violence. Multi-agency approach (Independent Domestic Violence Advisers, health, housing, social services,etc) 85% workload domestic violence
5 Communicating our Strategy Internally - ‘next time your ‘just a domestic’ is a murder’Externally – Offender focused ‘your partners silence no longer protects you’5
6 We needed to challenge mindsets and attitudes we ran a series of internal poster in police buildings entitled next time your just a domestic could be a fatality this highlighted the true scale of serious crime which was domestic related and the important role front line staff play.
8 Prevention Standard operating procedures and positive action Risk assessment modelRisk management panels (RAMPS/MARACS/MAPPA)Homicide and serious case reviewsDV investigation Book 124DCrown Prosecution Service engagementTrainingIn-house DV support workers/referral protocolsDV policed under National Intelligence ModelViolent Crime Directorate(Public Protection Group)MERLIN mandatory (information sharing on children)VCD TP Crime ( formally RVCTF Diversity Directorate) Research and analysis to improve service delivery.Findings from 53 homicide and serious crime reviews fed down into policy and SOPs.FINDINGS;Lack of DNA recordsSerial offendersHigh re – victimisationOnly 2 MAPPPA referrals12 perpetrators had just been released from prison or were on bailhomicide review - multi agency (i.e. mental health services, housing,NGO's, probation, social services, police) review that looks at the contactsagencies had with the victim and the suspect in the lead up to the murder.to learn lessons from the case to improve services. interestingly the lastreview I saw, mental health services refused to come into the table.recommendations from the reviews implemented into policy and practice.from earlier reviews of murders , serious violent + sexual offences highrisk factors indentified and SPECSS + model developed and implemented acrossMPS.Must arrest where offence has been committed, Positive action through CJSs. SLA withCPS, unsupported prosecutions using corroborative evidence.124D aid memoir for officers at scenes re evidence gathering,riskidentification and management - ensure officers not just recording butthinking have i done enough to prevent further incidents occurring.All of above into day mandatory training and recruit training.6 borough piloting RAMPS (risk ass. man. panels) generally held after MAPPPmeetings to manage the PDS/DP's not falling within the criteria for MAPPAmanagers. some other boroughs have similar panels set up with borough DVforum.Central intelligence unit (MIB) trawls intell for high risk cases (usingkeyword searches from SPECSS+ model) passed to my team review cases - provideadvice +support - subject to 'morning - prayers' MIB also identify dangerous+ high risk perps who will be subject to tasking and possibly passed to proactive task forcefor pro-active job.
9 Positive Action ‘..where an offence has been committed officers must arrest the suspect where there are reasonable grounds to suspect their involvement in the alleged crime. Failure to so may result in neglect of duty. Officers must justify any decision not to arrest and clearly document that decision….’‘It is the officers decision to arrest and is not reliant on the victim’s willingness to support a prosecution’
10 DV RISK MODEL DASH, 2009 Aims & Objectives of RA To save life and reduce incidents of serious injuryTo identify and manage risk effectivelyTo inform police decision making, including effective investigation and evidence gatheringTo prevent and reduce repeat victimisationThis is about saving lives.It is also about defensible decision making. Putting a plan together and there being a positive obligation to do something under Article 2: Right to Life.Process has to be National Intelligence Model (NIM) compliant at the strategic and tactical level. The Risk Assessment is an intelligence document, turns into information for action. Be proactive and start to target offenders as we would do for any other type of crime.NIM is about: intelligence, prevention and enforcement.There are three levels of offending and NIM creates a framework for all police services to work to regarding intelligenceLevel 1: local level offendingLevel 2: cross borderLevel 3: internationalWhy do risk assessment?Whether or not an incident becomes a homicide may be determined by the speed and / or quality of the emergency response rather than by the relationship, offender and victim characteristics.Certain characteristics are more predictive of homicide than others.
11 DV RISK MODEL DASH, 2009 separation/child contact pregnancy / new birthescalationcommunity issues / isolationstalking and harassmentsexual assaultchildren abusedweapon use and credible threats to killOsman v UK (1998) it was held that the police could be liable for breach of Article 2 (Right to Life, HRA, 1998) if they had not taken “reasonable” “preventive operational measures” to avoid a “real immediate” risk to life which they ought to have known about.
12 strangulation/choking suicidal/homicidal tendencies jealous, controlling behaviourpets abusedalcohol/substance misusemental healthhistory of violence/stalkingThis is about saving lives.It is also about defensible decision making. Putting a plan together and there being a positive obligation to do something under Article 2: Right to Life.Process has to be National Intelligence Model (NIM) compliant at the strategic and tactical level. The Risk Assessment is an intelligence document, turns into information for action. Be proactive and start to target offenders as we would do for any other type of crime.NIM is about: intelligence, prevention and enforcement.There are three levels of offending and NIM creates a framework for all police services to work to regarding intelligenceLevel 1: local level offendingLevel 2: cross borderLevel 3: internationalWhy do risk assessment?Whether or not an incident becomes a homicide may be determined by the speed and / or quality of the emergency response rather than by the relationship, offender and victim characteristics.Certain characteristics are more predictive of homicide than others.Part 1: have to take into account all other risk factors that may be present.Part 2 CSU will conduct in medium and high risk casesRARA Remove,avoid,reduce,accept
13 RISK of SERIOUS HARM (HO 2002 and OASys 2006) RISK LEVELSSTANDARDNo significant current indicators of risk of SERIOUS HARM.MEDIUMThere are identifiable indicators of risk of SERIOUS HARM. Offender likely to cause SERIOUS HARM if change in circumstances i.e. failure to take medication, relationship breakdown, substance misuse, if bailed, after court appearance etc).HIGHThere are identifiable indicators of risk of SERIOUS HARM. The potential event could happen at any time and the impact would be serious.RISK of SERIOUS HARM (HO 2002 and OASys 2006)‘a risk which is life threatening and/or traumatic, and from which recovery, whether physical or psych. can be expected to be difficult or impossible’
14 RISK MANAGEMENT 'RARA'R – Remove (Arrest/remand, victim to safe housing I.e Refuge)A – Avoid (Civil injunctions,mobile phone,bail conditions,)R - Reduce (target hardening,mobile phone,referral to RAMP/MARAC)A – Accept (continual reference to RA Model, intervention planning, support & consent of victim, offender target profiles to inform pro-activity ).Published tactical menu of optionsThis is the responsibility of First Responders – and their managersAnd then the Secondary Supervisor (Medium and High Risk cases)RISK IDENTIFCATION, ASSESSMENT AND MANAGEMENT PERMEATES ALL ASPECTS OF THE INVESTIGATION – irrespective of the DV victims willingness to support the investigation or not.
15 A MARAC aims to:Share information to increase safety , health and well-being of victims – adults & childrenTo determine if the perpetrator poses significant risk to any particular individual or to the general communityTo construct and implement a risk management planTo reduce repeat victimisationTo improve agency accountabilityImprove support for staff involved in high risk DV cases
16 Emerging findings Increased arrests Better risk identification and interventionSupport and safety planning for victimsImproved standards of investigationCharges/prosecutions increasedCompliance with positive action through CJSImproved recording of intelligenceEffective sharing of information between agenciesMonitored and targeted perpetratorsReduction in homicide,rape, serious violence and repeat victimisation
18 Key messages Training ! Training ! Training ! Supervision, accountability and complianceImproved risk identificationRisk assessment not using DASH,2009 = flawedassessments and inappropriate interventionClear guidance required and addressed throughstandard operating proceduresStrong communication strategyEffective partnershipsCriminal Justice System must be involved from outset
19 Final thoughtsThe world is a dangerous place to live in not because of the people who do evil things,but because of the people who know about it but do nothing to stop it” (Canter,2003)