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Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Session 3
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Chapter 2 – Argument Coordination Relationship between arguer and recipient as important as the content of the argument Relationship between arguer and recipient as important as the content of the argument Perspectives Perspectives Logical Dialectical Rhetorical
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Arguer-Based Approaches - Syllogism Major premise Major premise Minor premise Minor premise Conclusion Conclusion Categorical Categorical Disjunctive Disjunctive Hypothetical Hypothetical
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Arguer-Based Approaches - Toulmin Data Data Claim Claim Warrant Warrant Backing Backing Qualifier Qualifier
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Co-Orientational Approach Level of Dispute Level of Dispute Argument Situations: Rhetorical situation is context of persons, events, objects, relations…that invites arguments. Argument Situations: Rhetorical situation is context of persons, events, objects, relations…that invites arguments. Situations Argument fitting to situation Situation prescribes criteria for response Situations impermanent
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Co-Orientational Approach - Relationships Interdependent connections between arguer and recipients Interdependent connections between arguer and recipients Competing Competing Collaborating Collaborating Avoiding Avoiding Compromising Compromising Accommodating Accommodating
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Chapter 3 – Argument Analysis, Criticism Benefits Benefits Better understand the argument Enable recipient to judge and evaluate
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Approach for Analysis Simple Arguments – One Premise and a Claim Simple Arguments – One Premise and a Claim What the arguer means Number the statements in the argument Identify arguer’s main claim Diagram the argument
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Approach for Analysis (Cont.) Other Structural Patterns Other Structural Patterns Type II complex arguments have two or more premises supporting claim Type III arguments – Argument Chains Type IV compound arguments use one or more premises to support more than one conclusion.
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Approach for Analysis (Cont.) Application Application Ascertain the meaning Number the statements Identify the primary claim Construct a diagram Criticize the argument
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Argument Analysis - Fallacies Fallacies – flawed by irrelevant or inadequate evidence, erroneous reasoning, or improper expression. Fallacies – flawed by irrelevant or inadequate evidence, erroneous reasoning, or improper expression. Audience-based Audience-based Ad Hominem Ad Populum Appeal to Tradition Straw Arguments
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Fallacies (Cont.) Language-based Language-based Equivocation Amphiboly Emotive Language Grounding Fallacies Grounding Fallacies Begging question Non Sequitur
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Fallacies (Cont.) Reason-based Reason-based False Analogy Hasty Generalization False Cause Slippery Slope
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Chapter 5 - Audience Hostile Audiences Hostile Audiences Setting and Occasion as Rhetorical Field Setting and Occasion as Rhetorical Field For whom you speak When you speak Where you speak Events surrounding your speech The occasion
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Audience Analysis Classroom audience Classroom audience Ask direct questions Ask direct questions Questionnaire Questionnaire Inferential audience analysis – demographic categories Inferential audience analysis – demographic categories Adapt remarks to an audience Adapt remarks to an audience
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Chapter 14 – Persuasion Theories Aristotle’s artistic proofs Aristotle’s artistic proofs Ethos Logos Pathos Intensification/downplay model Intensification/downplay model Evoked recall model Evoked recall model
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Persuasion Theories (Cont.) Beliefs, attitudes and values model Beliefs, attitudes and values model Beliefs –Primitive beliefs –Shared beliefs –Derived beliefs –Matters of taste Attitudes Values
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Giving a Persuasive Speech Enhancing speaker credibility Enhancing speaker credibility Enhancing message credibility Enhancing message credibility Propositions of fact, value, policy Propositions of fact, value, policy Choosing message strategies Choosing message strategies One-sided vs. two-sided arguments Explicit vs. implicit conclusions Evoked recall appeals
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Giving a Persuasive Speech (Cont.) Organization in a motivated sequence Organization in a motivated sequence Attention Need Satisfaction Visualization Action Avoiding fallacies Avoiding fallacies
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Chapter 15 – Construct an Argument Argument from sign Argument from sign Sign infallible? Always lead to the conclusion? Always a relationship between sign and conclusion? Argument from cause Argument from cause Real connection? Other causes? Anything prevented this cause? Cause sufficient?
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Construct an Argument (Cont.) Argument from authority Argument from authority Qualified Capable? Behavior consistent?
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Construct an Argument (Cont.) Argument by definition Argument by definition Operational Example Association Definition confusing? Means more than one thing? Emotionally loaded? Generally agreeable?
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Construct an Argument (Cont.) Argument from analogy Argument from analogy Important points of comparison Any points of difference? Comparison outweighs difference? Argument from example Argument from example Extended Example typical? Enough examples? Example relevant?
Copyright © 2008, Terry Hudson Construct an Argument (Cont.) Argument by deduction Argument by deduction Nature of the groups true? This member truly belongs to this group? Process of proving – degrees of proof Process of proving – degrees of proof Impossible Possible Plausible Probable Certainty
SPEAKING PURSUASIVELY 15 © 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved.
Standardizing Arguments Premise 1: New Mexico offers many outdoor activities. Premise 2: New Mexico has rich history of Native Americans and of Spanish.
Speaking To Persuade & Appendix B – Sample Speech
Human Communication THIRD EDITION ◄ Judy C. Pearson Paul E. Nelson Scott Titsworth Lynn Harter ► C H A P T E R F I F T E E N Persuasive Presentations.
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©2006 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 16 Thinking and Speaking Critically.
Writing Persuasive Messages Chapter 10. Purpose To change your audience’s beliefs, actions, or values by providing sound, credible advice to solutions,
Stephen E. Lucas C H A P T E R McGraw-Hill© 2004 Stephen E. Lucas. All rights reserved. Methods of Persuasion 16.
Speaking to Persuade Persuasion Defined Motivating Your Audience
Chapter Seventeen: Persuasive Speaking. Ch17: Persuasive Speaking Copyright © 2006 Wadsworth 2.
Persuasive Speaking Chapter 14.
How Informative & Persuasive Speeches are Similar: Extemporaneous delivery Time limit (4-6 minutes) Outline required Same number of sources (four)
PERSUASIONANDARGUMENT Chapter 15 Copyright © Allyn & Bacon 2009 This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following.
Chapter 16 Persuasive Speaking. The nature of persuasive speeches Persuasive Speeches attempt to influence audience members.
Basics of Argumentation Victoria Nelson, Ph.D.. What is an argument? An interpersonal dispute.
Persuasion Principles of Speech Chapter What is Persuasion? How have you been persuaded today? Used in all aspects of life Both verbal and non-verbal.
Grading Criteria for Assigment 1 Structure – –sense of time, present and past –conflict with two distinct sides –description of cause of conflict –shared.
Persuasive Speaking. Define the goals of persuasive speaking Know how to develop a persuasive topic and thesis Understand your listeners and tailor.
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