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a quick introduction to Word Formation

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1 a quick introduction to Word Formation
Unit 2: fashion victims a quick introduction to Word Formation

2 Types of Word Formation: different ways of creating new words
Compounding Prefixation Suffixation Conversion Clipping Blends Backformation Acronyms Onomatopoeia Eponyms Toponyms We will center on these 2 ways!

3 1. Compounding Definition: Two or more words joined together to form a new word. Examples: Home + work  homework Pick + pocket  pickpocket The meaning of a compound is not always the sum of the meanings of its parts. Types of compounds: Compound nouns Compound verbs Compound adjectives

4 Compound Nouns Boyfriend Breakfast Sunshine, birth control
Software, fast food Overboard Drop-out, plug-in Noun + Noun Verb + Noun Noun + Verb Adjective + Noun Particle + Noun Verb + Particle

5 Compound Verbs Carbon-copy, sky-dive Fine-tune Overwork Bad-mouth
Noun + Verb Adjective + Verb Particle + Verb Adjective + Noun

6 Compound Adjectives Capital-intensive Deaf-mute Coffee-table Roll-neck
White-collar Before-tax Go-go Noun + Adjective Adjective + Adjective Noun + Noun Verb + Noun Adjective + Noun Particle + Noun Verb-verb

7 2. Prefixation Class-changing prefixes: Class-maintaining prefixes:
a-  asleep  Verb to Adjective be-  bewitch  Noun to Verb en-  enslave  Noun to Verb Class-maintaining prefixes: in-  indefinite  Adj to Adj fore-  foreground  Noun to N Etc.

8 3. Suffixation Suffixes forming Nouns N from N: -dom  kingdom
N from V: -ee  employee N from Adj: -ce  dependence Suffixes forming Verbs V from N: -ify  beautify V from Adj: -en  shorten Suffixes forming adjectives Adj from N: -al  educational Adj from V: -able  understandable Adj from Adj: -ish  greenish Suffixes forming Adverbs: -ly, -ward, and –wise.

9 4. Conversion Definition: Assigning an already existing word to a new syntactic category. Types of Conversion Verb to Noun: to hit  a hit Adj to N: a final game  a final N to V: a sign  to sign Adj to V: an empty box  to empty

10 5. Clipping Definition: Shortening a polysyllabic word by deleting one or more syllables Examples: Gasoline  Gas Hamburger  Burger delicatessen  microphone  deli mike

11 6. Blends Definition: Similar to compounds, but parts of the words are deleted. Examples: Motor + hotel  Motel Breakfast + lunch  Brunch Wireless + Fidelity  Sheep + goat  Wi-fi Shoat

12 7. Back-formations Definition: Creative reduction due to incorrect morphological analysis. Examples: editor (1649)  edit (1791) television (1907)  televise (1927) Paramedical (1921)  paramedic (1967)

13 8. Acronyms Definition: Words derived from the initial letters of several words and use them as a new word Examples: Very Important People/Person  VIP Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus  SCUBA

14 9. Onomatopoeia Definition: Words created to sound like the thing that they name. English Japanese Tagalog Catalan Cock-a-doo Kokekokko Kuk-kakauk QuiQuiriiQui ! Meow Nya Niyaw Miaauu !

15 10. Eponyms Definition: a person after whom a discovery, invention, place, etc., is named. Examples: degrees Celsius (Anders Celcius) Cook Islands (James Cook)

16 11. Toponyms Definition: a place name, especially one derived from a topographical feature. Examples: States in the USA: Montana (‘mountains’ in Spanish) Mississippi (‘big river’ in Chippewa)

17 Do you want to practise? Exercises: click here

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