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Exploring Oil & Gas. Historical Energy Use by Type of Fuel (%)

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Presentation on theme: "Exploring Oil & Gas. Historical Energy Use by Type of Fuel (%)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Exploring Oil & Gas

2 Historical Energy Use by Type of Fuel (%)

3 Where are the fossils in Fossil Fuels? Fossil fuels were forming before dinosaurs lived…

4 Formation

5 Hydrocarbons The NEED Project

6 Methane

7 The NEED Project

8 History of Oil

9 Edwin Drake and Henry Ford

10 History of Natural Gas

11 First U.S. Natural Gas Well In 1821, William Hart dug the first natural gas well in Fredonia, NY. The NEED Project

12 Where are Oil and Gas found in the U.S.? The NEED Project

13 Oil and gas are found on land and under water…

14 Sedimentary Rock and Petroleum Traps

15 Exploratio n ProductionTransportRefining Chemical Manufacturing Uses Oil and Gas Process

16 Exploration by Geologists

17 Seismic Technology LandWater

18 Seabed Seismic

19 Visualization The NEED Project

20 Core Samples

21 Exploration and Production by Drilling The NEED Project

22 Drilling Process Place the drill bit, collar, and drill pipe in the hole.Attach the kelly and turntable and begin drilling. As drilling progresses, circulate mud through the pipe and out of the bit to float the rock cuttings out of the hole. Add new sections (joints) of drill pipes as the hole gets deeper. Remove (trip out) the drill pipe, collar and bit when the preset depth (anywhere from a few hundred to a couple thousand feet) is reached.

23 Parts of a Well

24 Horizontal Drilling and Hydraulic Fracturing Increased technology allows us to retrieve “tight” formations. The drilling process is similar, except for a specialized bit that allows for horizontal drilling. If oil and gas are trapped, fracturing may be used to allow liquids to flow.

25 Production Christmas TreeHorse Head Pump

26 Enhanced Oil Recovery

27 Oil Transport

28 Natural Gas Transport The NEED Project

29 Refining of Petroleum

30 Fractionating Tower

31 What does a barrel of crude oil provide? Note: A 42-U.S. gallon barrel of crude oil yields about 45 gallons of petroleum products. Data: Energy Information Administration

32 Petroleum Products Data: Energy Information Administration Petroleum Products by Type, 2011 Gasoline42.02% Diesel / Heating Oil26.99% Other 14.36% (asphalt, feedstock, paraffin) Jet Fuel8.80% Refinery Fuel4.11% Liquefied Petroleum Gas3.73%

33 Processing of Natural Gas A natural gas compressor

34 Uses of Petroleum and Natural Gas Data: Energy Information Administration

35 Summary of Oil and Natural Gas Advantages  Widely available  Simple combustion process can directly heat or generate electricity  Inexpensive  Easily distributed—good infrastructure in place  High energy content Disadvantages  Nonrenewable  Greenhouse Gases(CO 2 )  Air pollution (byproducts released during combustion)  Price instability and costs rising  Reliance upon imports  Environmental impacts

36 For More Information The NEED Project 1-800-875-5029 Energy Information Administration U.S. Department of Energy The NEED Project

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