Presentation on theme: "Supervision in Organizations"— Presentation transcript:
1 Supervision in Organizations Chapter 1Defining the Supervisor’s Job
2 Learning Outcomes After reading this chapter, I will be able to: Explain the difference between supervisors, middle managers, and top managers.Identify the four functions in the management process;Describe the four essential supervisory competencies; andIdentify the elements that are necessary to be successful as a supervisor.
3 Organizations & Their Levels A systematic arrangement of people brought together to accomplish some specific purpose; applies to all organizations—for-profit as well as not-for-profit organizations.Common characteristicsSet of Goals (has a purpose)Structure (structure defines roles of employees/limits work behavior)People
4 Common Characteristics of Organizations An organization is a systematic arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose. Every organization has a purpose, people or members, and a systematic structure. The purpose of an organization is expressed in terms of a goal or set of goals. Within the organization’s structure, its employees strive to achieve these goals.
5 People Differences Operatives Managers People who work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others.ManagersIndividuals in an organization who direct the activities of others.
6 Organizational Levels We can categorize organizational members in two ways. Operatives work directly on a job or task and have no responsibility for overseeing the work of others. Managers direct the activities of other people in the organization. Usually classified as top, middle, or first-line, managers supervise both operative and lower-level managers.First-line managers supervise the day-to-day activities of operative employees.Middle managers represent the level of management between first-line managers and top management. These managers translate the goals of top management into specific details that lower-level managers can perform.Top managers make decisions about the direction of the organization and set policies that affect all organizational members.
7 Identifying Managers First-line managers Middle managers Top managers Supervisors responsible for directing the day-to-day activities of operative employeesMiddle managersIndividuals at levels of management between the first-line manager and top managementTop managersIndividuals who are responsible for making decisions about the direction of the organization and establishing policies that affect all organizational members
8 Organizational Levels Operative Employees:employees that physically produce an organization’s goods & servicesdon’t manage or oversee workExamples:Assembly Line WorkerUPS DriverDoctorsLawyersAccountantsEngineers
9 Organizational Levels cont… Top Management:Group of people responsible for establishing the organization’s overall objectives and developing policies to achieve that objectives.Examples:Chief Executive Officer (CEO)Chairman of the BoardSenior Vice PresidentSuperintendent of SchoolsGovernor
10 Organizational Levels cont… Middle Managers:individuals responsible for establishing and meeting specific goals in their particular department or unit.Examples:V.P. for FinanceDirector of SalesDivision ManagerGroup ManagerUnit ManagerSchool Principals
11 Organizational Levels cont… Supervisor (first-level manager):employed in overseeing skilled and semi-skilled workers (operative employees) in industry, and manage employees in retail sales and in offices.Examples:Department ChairHead CoachForemanTeam LeaderShift Leader/Captain
12 How Do We Define Management? The process of getting things done, effectively and efficiently, through and with other peopleEfficiencyMeans doing the task correctly; refers to the relationship between inputs and outputs; seeks to minimize resource costsEffectivenessMeans doing the right task; goal attainment
13 Efficiency and Effectiveness The term management refers to the process of getting things done, through other people, in an efficient and effective manner.Process refers to the primary functions that managers perform. Referring to inputs and outputs, doing the task right is being efficient.Doing the right task is being effective. So, managers are concerned not only with attaining goals (effectiveness) but also attaining them efficiently.
14 Management Process Activities Most experts on the subject of management endorse the concept of four basic interdependent management functions.Planning consists of several elements: defining an organization’s goals, establishing a strategy to achieve them, and developing a structure to coordinate goal achievement activities.Organizing includes determining what tasks will be done, who will do them, how the tasks will be grouped, who will report to whom, and where decisions will be made.Leading involves motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts.Controlling includes monitoring the organization’s performance, comparing it with previously set goals, and correcting deviations to keep the organization on course.Management process: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling
15 Management Processes Planning Organizing Includes defining organizational goals, establishing overall strategy to achieve goals, and developing comprehensive plans to integrate and coordinate activitiesOrganizingIncludes determining what tasks to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made
16 Management Processes (cont’d) LeadingIncludes motivating employees, directing the activities of others, selecting the most effective communication channel, and resolving conflictsControllingThe process of monitoring performance, comparing it with goals, and correcting any significant deviations
17 Changing Expectations of Supervisors Roles of Supervisors:Key Person – serve as the critical communication link in the organization’s chain of authorityPerson in the Middle – interact & reconcile the opposing forces & competing expectations from higher management & workers.Just another Worker – many times excluded from decision making.Behavioral Specialist – must be able to understand the varied needs of their staff & able to listen, motivate, & lead.
18 The Transition from Employee to Supervisor Where Do Supervisors Come From?Supervisory positions are recruited from:Colleges & UniversitiesWithin the ranks of employees (most common)Other firmsReasons for promoting operative employees to Supervisors:Job knowledge & experienceFamiliarity with company policies and proceduresKnow the people they will be supervising
19 The Transition from Employee to Supervisor cont… Research identified 19 major problems new supervisors experienced in their first year:Their initial view of the manager as boss was incorrect. (perceived power);Being unprepared for the demands & ambiguities they would face (simultaneous problems to be solved);Technical expertise was no longer a determinant of success;The administrative duties (paperwork); andBeing unprepared for the “people challenges” of their new job.
20 Do You Really Want to be a Supervisor Realities of Being a SupervisorSuccess is defined differentlySuccess does not depend on your performance, it depends on the performance of people your supervise.Long Work HoursArrive before operative employees and leave afterEndless PaperworkTime CardsProductivity ReportInventory ReportPayHourly or Sourly???
21 Supervisory Competencies Robert Katz identified four critical competencies a supervisor must possess to be successful:Technical – ability to apply specialized knowledgeInterpersonal – ability to work with, understand, communicate with, & motivate others, both individually & in groupsConceptual – mental ability to analyze & diagnose complex situationsPolitical Competencies – ability to enhance his/her power, build power base, & establish the “right” connections in the organization
22 Supervisory Competencies cont… Competencies shift by management levelTechnical competence declines in importance as individuals rise in the organization;Interpersonal competencies are a constant for success, regardless of the level in the organization; andConceptual & political competencies increase in importance as managerial responsibilities rise.