# Overview Waffle Slab.

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Overview Waffle Slab

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Two Way Joist Slab

Two-Way Joist Introduction

Two-Way Joist Introduction
A two-way joist system, or waffle slab, comprises evenly spaced concrete joists spanning in both directions and a reinforced concrete slab cast integrally with the joists. Joist

Two-Way Joist The joists are commonly formed by using standard square “dome” forms and the domes are omitted around the columns to form the solid heads. Solid Head

Two-Way Joist Like one-way joist system, a two way system will be called as two-way joist system if clear spacing between ribs (dome width) does not exceed 30 inches.

Two-Way Joist Introduction Standard Dome Data
Generally the dome for waffle slab can be of any size. However the commonly used standard domes are discussed as follows: 30-inch × 30-inch square domes with 3-inch flanges; from which 6-inch wide joist ribs at 36-inch centers are formed: these are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14, 16 and 20 inches. 19-inch × 19-inch square domes with 2 ½-inch flanges, from which 5-inch wide joist ribs at 24-inch centers are formed. These are available in standard depths of 8, 10, 12, 14 and 16 inches.

Two-Way Joist Standard Dome Data

Two-Way Joist Behavior Characteristics
The behavior of two-way joist slab is similar to a two way flat Slab system. Characteristics Dome voids reduce dead load. Attractive ceiling (waffle like appearance). Electrical fixtures can be placed in the voids. Particularly advantageous where the use of longer spans and/or heavier loads are desired without the use of deepened drop panels or supported beams.

Two-Way Joist Basic Steps for Design
Step No (Sizes): Sizes of all structural and non structural elements are decided. Step No (Loads): Loads on structure are determined based on occupational characteristics and functionality. Step No. 03 (Analysis): Effect of loads are calculated on all structural elements. Step No. 04 (Design): Structural elements are designed for the respective load effects following code provisions.

Two-Way Joist Sizes Minimum Joist Depth
For Joist depth determination, waffle slabs are considered as flat slab (ACI , & 9.5.3). The thickness of equivalent flat slab is taken from table 9.5 (c). The thickness of slab and depth of rib of waffle slab can be then computed by equalizing the moment of inertia of equivalent flat slab to that of waffle slab. However since this practice is time consuming, tables have been developed to determine the size of waffle slab from equivalent flat slab thickness.

Two-Way Joist Sizes Minimum Joist Depth Equivalent Flat Slab Thickness
ACI – Sect Minimum thickness = ln/33

Two-Way Joist Sizes Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness

Two-Way Joist Sizes Minimum Joist Depth
Slab and rib depth from equivalent flat slab thickness

Two-Way Joist Sizes Minimum Width of Rib Maximum Depth of Rib
ACI states that ribs shall be not less than 4 inches in width. Maximum Depth of Rib ACI also states that ribs shall have a depth of not more than 3½ times the minimum width of rib. Minimum Slab Thickness ACI states that slab thickness shall be not less than one-twelfth the clear distance between ribs, nor less than 2 inch.

Dimension of solid head on either side of column centerline is equal to l/6. The depth of the solid head is equal to the depth of the combined depth of ribs and top slab.

Floor dead load for two-way joist with certain dome size, dome depth can be calculated from the table shown for two options of slab thicknesses (3 inches and 4 ½ inches).

Two-Way Joist Load Floor dead load (wdj) for two-way joist can also be calculated as follows: Volume of solid: Vsolid = (36  36  11)/1728 = 8.24 ft3 Volume of void: Vvoid = (30  30  8)/1728 = ft3 Total Load of joists per dome: wdj = (Vsolid – Vvoid)  γconc = ( 8.24 – 4.166)  0.15 = 0.61 kips/ dome Total Load of joists per sq. ft: wdj/ (dome area) = 0.61/ (3  3) = ksf = 68 psf ≈ 71 psf (from table 03) The difference is because sloped ribs are not considered.

Two-Way Joist Load Taking a panel out of the system:

Two-Way Joist Load If the complete area l1 × l2 is assumed to occupy joists alone, then the dead load in the area l1 × l2 will be wdj. However since there are solid head regions present, therefore additional dead load due to solid head region shall be: Wdsh = hsolid x γconc - wdj

Two-Way Joist Load ACI code allows use of DDM for analysis of waffle slabs (ACI R13.1). In such a case, waffle slabs are considered as flat slabs, with the solid head acting as drop panels (ACI ).

Two-Way Joist Design Design of slab for punching shear.
The solid head shall be checked against punching shear. The critical section for punching shear is taken at a section d/2 from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

Two-Way Joist Design Design of slab for punching shear.
Load on tributary area will cause punch out shear. Within tributary area, two types of loads are acting: Solid head load Joist load Both types shall be considered while calculating punching shear demand. l2

Two-Way Joist Design Design of slab for punching shear.
Total area (At) = l1  l2 Solid head area = Asolid Critical perimeter area = Acp Vu =At wuj + Asolid (wish − wuj) Where, wuj = Factored load considering joist alone wsh = Factored solid head dead load l2

Two-Way Joist Design Design of slab for punching shear.
ΦVn = ΦVc + ΦVs ΦVc is least of: Φ4√ (fc′)bod (2 + 4/βc) √ (fc′)bod {(αsd/bo +2} √ (fc′)bod βc = longer side of column/shorter side of column αs = 40 for interior column, 30 for edge column, 20 for corner columns

Two-Way Joist Design Design of Joist for Beam Shear:
Beam Shear Demand Beam shear is not usually a problem in slabs including waffle slabs. However for completion of design beam shear may also be checked. Beam shear can cause problem in case where larger spans and heavier loads with relatively shallow waffle slabs are used. The critical section for beam shear is taken at a section d from face of the column, where d is the effective depth at solid head.

Two-Way Joist Design Design of Joist for Beam Shear: ΦVn = ΦVc + ΦVs
Beam shear capacity of concrete joist: ΦVn = ΦVc + ΦVs ΦVc is least of: Φ2√ (fc′)bribd ΦVs = ΦAvfy/bribs For joist construction, contribution of concrete to shear strength Vc shall be permitted to be 10 percent more than that specified in Chapter 11. If required, one or two single legged stirrups are provided in the rib to increase the shear capacity of waffle slab.

Two-Way Joist ACI Recommendations on Reinforcement Requirement of Waffle Slab: Recommendations for Ribs: ACI states that if the effective depth d of a beam or joist exceeds 36 inches, longitudinal skin reinforcement shall be provided as per ACI section Recommendations for Slab: According to ACI , for cellular or ribbed construction reinforcement shall not be less than the requirements of ACI 7.12. As per ACI 7.12, Spacing of top bars cannot exceed 5h or 18 inches.

Two-Way Joist Other Important Points:
The amount of reinforcement and, if necessary, the top slab thickness can be changed to vary the load capacities for different spans, areas, or floors of a structure. Each joist rib contains two bottom bars. Straight bars are supplied over the column centerlines for negative factored moment.

Two-Way Joist Other Important Points:
For layouts that do not meet the standard 2-feet and 3-feet modules, it is preferable that the required additional width be obtained by increasing the width of the ribs framing into the solid column head.

Two-Way Joist Other Important Points:
The designer should sketch out the spacing for a typical panel and correlate with the column spacing as a part of the early planning.

Moment Coefficient Method

Two-Way Slab Moment Coefficient Method (Introduction)
The Moment Coefficient Method included for the first time in ACI Code is applicable to two-way slabs supported on four sides of each slab panel by walls, steel beams relatively deep, stiff, edge beams (h = 3hf). Although, not included in 1977 and later versions of ACI code, its continued use is permissible under the ACI code provision (13.5.1).