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Cleaning, cooking, chilling and cross contamination

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1 Cleaning, cooking, chilling and cross contamination

2 Learning objectives To understand the importance of food hygiene.
To know how to prevent cross- contamination by cleaning, cooking and chilling.

3 Food poisoning Food poisoning is often caused when harmful bacteria on one food is spread via hands, kitchen utensils or surfaces to cross-contaminate other foods. This can be avoided by maintaining high standards of food hygiene when storing, handling and preparing food. The Food Standards Agency suggests four strategies to prevent food poisoning: cleaning cooking chilling cross contamination.

4 Cleaning Clean kitchen surfaces before and after preparing food.
Try to ‘clean as you go’ washing utensils and surfaces as food is prepared. Spills should be wiped up immediately. Always wash hands, utensils and surfaces thoroughly after handing raw meat, poultry fish and other raw foods and before any contact with other food. If you are unwell, e.g. diarrhoea or vomiting, you should not prepare food. Sores and cuts should be covered with a waterproof dressing.

5 Cleaning tips – use the right materials for cleaning
Detergents such as washing up liquids are designed to dissolve grease, oil and dirt. Disinfectants, such as bleach, are designed to kill germs. Anti-bacterial cleaners, often in a spray form are types of disinfectant and can kill germs. Clean surfaces first with detergent to remove any grease or diet, then apply disinfectant to kill any remaining germs. Separate cloths can be used for separate tasks. These cloths should be changed regularly.

6 Cleaning Crockery and utensils should be washed with hot soapy water after use. The washing up water should be changed regularly. Dishes should be rinsed in clean, hot water. Where possible dishes should be drained until dry.

7 Cleaning – washing hands
Hands should be regularly washed with warm soapy water and dried. This is particularly important: After going to the toilet Sneezing or blowing your nose After handling raw food Before preparing food After touching bins After touching pets.

8 Cooking tips Follow recipes and preparation instructions on food labels for cooking times and temperatures. Ovens and grills will need to be preheated. Food must be piping hot before serving above 63ºC. Sausages, burgers, pork and poultry are cooked thoroughly when the juices run clear. Some meat, such as steaks and joints of beef and lamb can be served rare as long as the outside has been properly cooked.

9 Cooking tips Once cooked, keep food covered and piping hot until serving time. When reheating food, ensure it is piping hot. Leftovers can be kept for up to two days and not reheat food more than once and should not be re-heated more than once. Stir and stand food heated by a microwave in order to remove cool/hot spots. Follow the date marks.

10 Chilling tips Refrigerators should be checked kept in between 0-5°C and freezers below -18°C. Hot food should not be placed directly into the refrigerator or freezer, but left to cool sufficiently within 1-2 hours. Large amounts of food can be divided into smaller portions to speed up the cooling of food to speed up the cooling process. A cool bag or cool box can be used when eating outside at a barbecue or picnic. Frozen food should be defrosted thoroughly.

11 Chilling Do not refreeze food once it has begun to thaw.
The bacteria that cause food to deteriorate and food poisoning rapidly reproduce around the temperature of 37ºC (body temperature). The temperature between 5ºC– 63ºC is sometimes called the ‘danger-zone’. Reducing the temperature below 5ºC slows the reproduction of microorganisms.

12 Cross contamination prevention
Cross contamination occurs when bacteria are transferred from food or surface to another. Contamination can be: Direct – where food touches or drips onto another food transferring bacteria Indirect – where bacteria on hands, work surfaces or equipment are spread to food. Pets and pests should be kept away from food and food preparation areas.

13 Cross contamination prevention
Hands should always be washed after handing raw food. Raw and ready-to-eat food should be stored separately. Different utensils should be used for raw and ready-to-eat food, or cleaned in between preparing different types of food. Use separate clean knives and chopping boards for raw and cooked food. Ensure raw meat is covered and stored separately on the lowest shelf of the refrigerator. In catering establishments, different coloured chopping boards and knives are used for different types of food.

14 Summary There are many opportunities for cross contamination when preparing food. There are many strategies which can be employed to prevent this: cooking chilling cleaning cross contamination (prevention).

15 For further information and support, go to:

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