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Newton’s Laws Easy as apple pie!

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**Force Force a push or a pull force of table g**

Causes object to start or stop moving or change direction force of table g

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Newton’s 1st Law Greeks thought that the natural state of an object was at rest. ex. A ball stops rolling without friction an object would never stop! Newton’s 1st an object in motion tends to stay in motion; an object at rest tends to stay at rest

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Newton’s 1st Law Inertia property of matter that resists a change in motion An object with great mass has high inertia

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**Newton’s 2nd Law f = m x a A 50N B 100N FA = 1000 kg x 0.05 m/s/s FA =**

FB = 2000 kg x m/s/s FB = 100N

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**Newton’s 2nd Law Force = mass x acceleration**

An object will only accelerate if there is an unbalanced force

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Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is and equal and opposite reaction The astronaut pushes on the rock and the rock pushes on the astronaut

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Newton’s 3rd Law For every action there is and equal and opposite reaction A bird pushes down on the air and the air pushes up on the bird

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Newton’s 3rd Law Note: Equal and opposite forces does not result in equal acceleration if the masses are different.

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Newton’s Laws 1st Law: (inertia: objects tend to do what they are doing) cannon ball will rest until a force is put on it ball will roll straight until ramp puts a force on it 2nd Law: (f = m x a) greater force put on ball accelerates it more greater mass of ball but greater force on water 3rd Law: (every action has an equal but opposite reaction) ball moves right, cannon recoils left ball move down, water splashes up Newton's Laws - YouTube

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Gravity force of hand g With the upward force of the floor equilibrium is attained and there is no motion Without the upward force of the hand there is not equilibrium of forces and motion occurs

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**Gravity: air resistance**

Opposes downward motion of falling objects. Larger surface areas increases air resistance

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Which Law??? F=ma Inertia

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Which Law??? The pellet has entered the egg at the left side but not exited yet. One second later there was raw egg all over the work table and the backdrop. F=ma, Inertia

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Which Law??? Action-reaction Inertia

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Which Law??? F=ma Inertia Action-reaction

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Which Law??? Inertia F=ma Action-reaction

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Free Body Diagrams A force diagram, which is also known as a free body diagram, is a sketch in which all the force vectors acting on an object are drawn with their initial points at the location of the object.

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**Opposition to Motion razor's edge**

Friction a force that opposes motion Caused by rough surfaces of all materials razor's edge

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3 Types of Friction 1. Sliding when solid objects grind over each other puck and ice 2. Rolling wheels spinning on an axle skateboards eventually roll to a stop 3. Fluid liquids or gases slow the motion of a solid wind resistance oil a squeaky hinge pushes a surfer

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Free-body diagrams Free-body diagrams are used to show the relative magnitude and direction of all forces acting on an object.

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**This diagram shows four forces acting upon an object**

This diagram shows four forces acting upon an object. There aren’t always four forces, For example, there could be one, two, or three forces.

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Problem 1 A book is at rest on a table top. Diagram the forces acting on the book. In this diagram, there are normal and gravitational forces on the book.

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Problem 2 An egg is free-falling from a nest in a tree. Neglect air resistance. Draw a free-body diagram showing the forces involved.

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**Gravity is the only force acting on the egg as it falls.**

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Problem 3 A flying squirrel is gliding (no wing flaps) from a tree to the ground at constant velocity. Consider air resistance. A free body diagram for this situation looks like…

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**Gravity pulls down on the squirrel while air resistance keeps the squirrel in the air for a while.**

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Problem 4 A rightward force is applied to a book in order to move it across a desk. Consider frictional forces. Neglect air resistance. Construct a free-body diagram. Let’s see what this one looks like.

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Note the larger applied force arrow pointing to the right since the book is accelerating to the right. Friction force opposes the direction of motion. The force due to gravity and normal forces are balanced.

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Problem 5 A skydiver is descending with a constant velocity. Consider air resistance. Draw a free-body diagram.

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**Gravity pulls down on the skydiver, while air resistance pushes up as she falls.**

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Problem 6 A man drags a sled across loosely packed snow with a rightward acceleration. Draw a free-body diagram.

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The applied force arrow points to the right and is larger than the frictional force since the object is accelerating. Since the sled is on the ground, the normal and gravitational force are balanced.

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Problem 7 A football is moving upwards toward its peak after having been booted by the punter. Draw a free-body diagram. (Neglect air friction)

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**The force of gravity is the only force described. (no air resistance).**

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Problem 8 A car runs out of gas and is coasting down a hill.

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The car is coasting down the hill, there is dragging friction of the road (left pointing arrow) as well as gravity and normal forces, but no applied force.

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Net Force Now let’s take a look at what happens when unbalanced forces do not become completely balanced (or cancelled) by other individual forces. An unbalanced forces exists when the vertical and horizontal forces do not cancel each other out.

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Example 1 Notice the upward force of 1200 Newtons (N) is more than gravity (800 N). The net force is 400 N up.

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Example 2 Notice that while the normal force and gravitation forces are balanced (each are 50 N) the force of friction results in unbalanced force on the horizontal axis. The net force is 20 N left.

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**Another way to look at balances and unbalanced forces**

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**Balanced or unbalanced?**

Accelerating – Unbalanced Constant velocity –balanced deccelerating – Unbalanced

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**Balanced or Unbalanced?**

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**Which objects are moving?**

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