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Prokaryotes and Viruses Chapter 21. Microorganisms  Single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope  Bacteria are the smallest.

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Presentation on theme: "Prokaryotes and Viruses Chapter 21. Microorganisms  Single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope  Bacteria are the smallest."— Presentation transcript:

1 Prokaryotes and Viruses Chapter 21

2 Microorganisms  Single-celled organisms that are too small to be seen without a microscope  Bacteria are the smallest living organisms  Viruses are smaller but are not alive

3 The Prokaryotes  Only two groups  Archaebacteria and Eubacteria  Arose before the eukaryotes

4 Prokaryotic Characteristics  No membrane-bound nucleus  Single chromosome  Cell wall (in most species)  Prokaryotic fission  Metabolic diversity

5 Prokaryotic Body Plan bacterial flagellum pilus capsule cell wall plasma membrane cytoplasm DNA ribosomes in cytoplasm Figure 21.3 Page 348

6 Bacterial Shapes coccusbacillus spirillum In-text figure Page 348

7 Metabolic Diversity  Photoautotrophs  Chemoautotrophs  Chemoheterotrophs

8 Bacterial Genes  Bacteria have a single chromosome  Circular molecule of DNA  Many bacteria also have plasmids  Self-replicating circle of DNA that has a few genes  Can be passed from one cell to another

9 Prokaryotic Fission - 1 DNA replication begins Bacterium before DNA replication bacterial chromosome Figure 21.7 Page 350

10 Prokaryotic Fission - 2 parent DNA molecule DNA copy DNA replication completed Membrane growth moves DNA molecules apart Figure 21.7 Page 350

11 Prokaryotic Fission - 3 New membrane and cell-wall material deposited Cytoplasm divided in two Figure 21.7 Page 350

12 Conjugati on nicked plasmid in donor cell conjugation tube to recipient cell Transfer of plasmid Figure 21.8 Page 351

13 Prokaryotic Classification EUBACTERIA (Bacteria) ARCHAEBACTERIA (Archaea) EUKARYOTES (Eukarya) Traditionally classified by numerical taxonomy Now increased use of comparative biochemistry Figure 21.9 Page 351

14 Archaebacteria Methanogens Extreme halophiles Extreme thermophiles

15 Eubacteria  Includes most familiar bacteria  Have fatty acids in plasma membrane  Most have cell wall; always includes peptidoglycan  Classification based largely on metabolism

16 Eubacterial Diversity  Photoautotrophic  Aerobic (Cyanobacteria)  Anaerobic (Green bacteria)  Chemoautotrophic  Important in nitrogen cycle  Chemoheterotrophic  Largest group

17 Some Pathogenic Eubacteria  Most are chemoheterotrophs  E. coli strains  Clostridium botulinum  Clostridium tetanus  Borrelia burgdorferi  Rickettsia rickettsii

18 Bacterial Behavior  Bacteria move toward nutrient-rich regions  Aerobes move toward oxygen; anaerobes avoid it  Photosynthetic types move toward light  Magnetotactic bacteria swim downward  Myobacteria show collective behavior

19 Virus  Noncellular infectious agent  Protein wrapped around a nucleic acid core  Cannot reproduce itself; can only be reproduced using a host cell

20 Viral Body Plans  Genetic material is DNA or RNA  Coat is protein Complex virus (bacteriophage) Polyhedral virusHelical virus Fig. 21.18 Page 356

21 Enveloped Virus (HIV) Fig. 21.18 Page 356 lipid envelope (derived from host) viral RNA reverse transcriptase viral coat (proteins) viral protein

22 Viral Multiplication - Basic Steps  Attach to host cell  Enter host (virus or just genetic material)  Direct host to make viral genetic material and protein  Assemble viral nucleic acids and proteins  Release new viral particles

23 Lytic Pathway Stepped Art Fig. 21.20 Page 358 Virus particles bind to wall of suitable host. Viral genetic material enters cell cytoplasm. Viral DNA directs host machinery to produce viral proteins and viral DNA. Viral protein molecules are assembled into coats; DNA is packaged inside. Tail fibers and other parts are added to coats. Lysis of host cell is induced; infectious particles escape.

24 Lysogenic Pathway Stepped Art Fig 21.20 (2) Page 358 Viral DNA usually becomes integrated into the bacterial chromosome. Prior to prokaryotic fission, the chromosome and integrated viral DNA are replicated. After binary fission, each daughter cell will have recombinant DNA. Viral DNA is excised from chromosome and cell enters lytic pathway.

25 Replicatio n of an Enveloped Virus viral DNA some proteins for viral coat Replication of viral DNA DNA virus particle plasma membrane of host cell nuclear envelope other proteins for viral envelope Translation Transcription of viral DNA Figure 21.21 Page 359

26 Viroids  Smaller than viruses  Strands or circles of RNA  No protein-coding genes  No protein coat  Cause many plant diseases

27 Prions  Small proteins  Linked to human diseases  Kuru  Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD)  Animal diseases  Scrapie in sheep  Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)

28 Nature of Disease  Contagious disease pathogens must directly contact a new host  Epidemic  Pandemic (AIDS)  Sporadic  Endemic

29 Evolution and Disease  Host and pathogen are coevolving  If a pathogen kills too quickly, it might disappear along with the individual host  Most dangerous if pathogen  Is overwhelming in numbers  Is in a novel host  Is a mutant strain

30 New Threats  Emerging Pathogens  Ebola virus  Monkeypox virus  Drug-resistant strains  Food poisoning  E. coli  Salmonella

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