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Chapter 21 A Dividing Nation.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 21 A Dividing Nation."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 21 A Dividing Nation

2 Issue of slavery & the Missouri compromise
Missouri applied for statehood as a slave state. Northerners opposed this because it would upset the balance of free and slave states in the Senate. Southerners favored Missouri being admitted as a slave state because there would be more slave states than free states in Senate. The Tallmadge Amendment proposed that Missouri be admitted as a free state. Northerners favored this because it would stop the spread of slavery into the Louisiana Territory. Southerners opposed this because if Missouri were admitted as a free state, the North would have the votes in Congress to end slavery. What actually happened? • Missouri entered the Union as a slave state. • Maine entered the Union as a free state. • Congress drew a line at 36°30' across the Louisiana Territory. Slavery was permitted south of that line and prohibited north of it.

3 Missouri Compromise

4 Missouri Compromise

5 Compromise Unravels Abolitionists wanted to stop slavery in Washington, D.C., but Congress refused to consider anti-slavery petitions. Northern abolitionists were angered because they wanted Congress to outlaw slavery in the capital. Southerners were pleased because the South wanted no limitations placed on slavery. Some northerners assisted fugitive slaves. Northerners tolerated this practice because they felt slavery was wrong. Southerners condemned this practice because they felt a runaway slave was lost property. What actually happened? • The slave trade was ended in Washington, D.C. • A strong fugitive slave law was passed.

6 The Compromise of 1850 The Wilmot Proviso stated slavery would not be allowed in the Mexican Cession. Northerners favored this amendment because they wanted to prevent the expansion of slavery into territories. Southerners opposed this amendment because they felt Congress had no right to tell slaveholders where they could take their property. California applied for admission as a free state. Northerners favored admitting California as a free state because it would create more free states than slave states in Congress. Southerners opposed admitting California as a free state because it would make the slaves states a minority in Congress. What Actually Happened? California was admitted as a free state. New Mexico and Utah were organized as territories open to slavery.

7 The Compromise of 1850

8 Compromise Satisfies No One
The Fugitive Slave Law caused bitterness between the North and the South. Northerners were dissatisfied because they were asked to help slave catchers. Southerners were dissatisfied because northerners refused to obey it. Uncle Tom’s Cabin (Harriet Beecher Stowe) told the story of a slave and his master. The book was popular in the North because it aroused powerful emotions against slavery. The Kansas-Nebraska Act stated that the issue of slavery in the territories would be decided by popular sovereignty. Both pro-slavery and anti-slavery forces rushed to the territories to vote. Northerners were unhappy about the act because it overturned the Missouri Compromise and allowed slavery north of 36°30’ in the Louisiana Territory. What actually happened? Pro-slavery settlers burn buildings, loot homes, and destroy newspaper presses in Kansas. John Brown and 7 men responded by killing 5 pro-slavery men. SC representative attacks Senator Sumner after bloodshed in Kansas is blamed on the South

9 The Dred Scott Decision
Dred Scott was a slave who believed his trip to Wisconsin (where slavery was banned) made him a free man. Took it to court when returned to Missouri. What actually happened? • Scott could not sue for his freedom in a federal court because he was not a citizen, nor could any African American ever become an American citizen. • Scott’s stay in Wisconsin did not make him a free man because the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. • Congress cannot ban slavery in the territories.

10 Compromise to Crisis During the Lincoln-Douglas debates, positions regarding slavery were made clear. Lincoln, representing the opinion of the North, felt slavery was a moral issue. “A house divided against itself cannot stand.” Douglas, representing the opinion of the South, felt slavery was a legal issue and was settled through the Dred Scott decision. John Brown attacked the arsenal at Harpers Ferry to get weapons for a slave rebellion. Northerners considered Brown a hero. Southerners feared slave rebellions might spread throughout the South. In 1860, Abraham Lincoln was elected president. Northerners were happy because Lincoln was opposed to the spread of slavery. Southerners were unhappy because they had lost most of their political power. What actually happened? • SC and six other states seceded from the Union. (Lincoln states is unconstitutional) • SC fired on Fort Sumter (April 12, 1861) starting the Civil War.


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