Presentation on theme: "FAO/WHO CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CODEX)"— Presentation transcript:
1 FAO/WHO CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CODEX) 4/12/2017FAO/WHO CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION (CODEX)Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards ProgrammeFood and Agriculture Organization of the United NationsLusaka, Zambia, 3-5 July 2002
2 1. Introducing Codex Alimentarius Commission 4/12/20171. Introducing Codex Alimentarius Commission2. Role of Codex in setting food standards and the SPS Agreement Implementation3. Import/Export food control - Why rejections?4. Conclusions
3 Latin for “Food Law” or “Food Code” 4/12/2017Codex AlimentariusLatin for “Food Law” or “Food Code”
4 What is “Codex” The Codex Alimentarius Commission Committees and Task ForcesSecretariatThe Codex AlimentariusStandards and residue limitsCode of practices, guidelines and Recommendations (13 Volumes)The Codex “Process”
5 Codex Alimentarius Commission 4/12/2017Codex Alimentarius CommissionFounded by FAO in 1961Responsible for the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme since 1962
6 Codex Objectives To protect the health of consumers 4/12/2017Codex ObjectivesTo protect the health of consumersTo ensure fair practices in the food tradeTo coordinate all food standards work
7 Codex Alimentarius Commission 4/12/2017Codex Alimentarius Commission167 Member countriesObservers from IGOs & INGOsEstablishes its own programme of workAdopts standards, guidelines and other recommendationsMakes recommendations to Member governments, FAO and WHO on general food standards matters
8 The Commission Meets every 2 years Meetings last for 6 days Rome or GenevaMeetings last for 6 daysWorks in Arabic*, Chinese*, English, French and Spanish*(From 2001)
9 Codex Alimentarius Commission 1st Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, Rome, October 1963120 participants from 30 countries and 16 international organizations24 Session of the Codex Alimentarius Commission, Geneva, June-July 2001608 participants from 104 countries and 63international organizations
10 STRUCTURE OF THE CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION 4/12/2017STRUCTURE OF THE CODEX ALIMENTARIUS COMMISSION
14 The Regional Coordinating Committees 4/12/2017The Regional Coordinating Committees6 Regional CommitteesAfrica, Asia, Europe, Near East,Latin America & Caribbean,North America & Southwest PacificCoordinate activities relevant to the regionRegional Codex standardsHarmonization
15 The Secretariat of the Commission 4/12/2017The Secretariat of the CommissionAdministrative support to the CommissionLink with Codex Contact PointsCo-ordination with the work of other organsLocated at HQ of FAO (Rome)
16 Acts as the link with Codex Contact Points of Member countries 4/12/2017The SecretariatActs as the link with Codex Contact Points of Member countries
17 Technical Organs of the Commission 4/12/2017Technical Organs of the Commission9 General Subject Committees+12 Commodity Committees3 Ad Hoc Inter-Governmental Task ForcesThe work of the Codex Alimentarius is divided between two basic types of committees.The first type comprises those Committees which deal with a general subject matter and work horizontally with all commodity committees. There are eight in total. These Committees are responsible for the elaboration of standards, guidelines and other recommendations related to the evaluation of food additives and environmental contaminants, including radioactivity (Codex Committee on Food Additives and Contaminants), the establishment of maximum residue levels for chemicals used in agricultural production (Codex Committees on Pesticide Residues and Veterinary Drug Residues in Foods), and the examination of microbiological organisms and their toxins through the Codex Committee on Food Hygiene.In addition there are 17 commodity committees, each works in a vertical manner on the specific food or class of food allotted to them.
18 General Subject Committees General Principles (France)Food Additives & Contaminants (Netherlands)Food Labelling (Canada)Food Hygiene (USA)Pesticide Residues (Netherlands)Methods of Analysis & Sampling (Hungary)Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (Australia)Residues of Veterinary Drugs in Foods (USA)Nutrition & Foods for Special Dietary Uses (Germany)
19 Codex Commodity Committees Processed Fruits and Vegetables (USA)Fresh Fruits and Vegetables (Mexico)Milk and Milk Products (New Zealand)Fats and Oils (UK)Fish and Fishery Products (Norway)Natural Mineral Waters (Switzerland)Cocoa Products and Chocolate (Switzerland)Sugars (UK)
20 Codex Committees adjourned Mineral WatersCereals, Pulses and LegumesVegetable ProteinsSoups and Broths
21 4/12/2017Ad Hoc Intergovernmental Codex Task Forces (established by the 23rd Session of the CAC)Foods derived from Biotechnology (Japan, March 2000)Animal Feeding(Denmark, June 2000)Fruit and Vegetable Juices(Brazil, September 2000)
22 Expert input to Codex Committees 4/12/2017Expert input to Codex CommitteesJoint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA)Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on PesticideResidues (JMPR)Joint FAO/WHO Expert Consultations
24 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Proposed draft standard Decision of the Commission 4/12/2017Decision of the CommissionProposed draft standardRequest of written CommentsAmendments / SessionAdoption as a draft standardAdoption as a Codex standard12345678UNIFORMPROCEDURE(8 STEPS)Possible OmissionThe elaboration procedure of Codex standards therefore gives to all Member Countries two opportunities to express their views on the proposed texts, before they are sent to the Commission for adoption. Once on the proposed draft standard (comments at Step 3) and once on the draft standard (comments at Step 6). In addition, a third and ultimate opportunity is given when the draft standard (at Step 8) is considered for adoption at the Commission session. When the Commission meets, any written proposal received from Members and interested international organizations for amendments at Step 8 will be considered. Before the Commission meets, each government receives a copy of the texts which will be proposed for adoption at the Commission’s session. A date is given in the accompanying letter to notify the deadline for sending written proposals on the texts.Setting up a national structure able to provide written comments, is therefore a most important step towards an increased contribution to the elaboration of codex standards.The Commission has two ways to speed up the elaboration of standards when it is considered necessary. The first way is for the Commission to authorize, on the basis of two-third majority of votes cast, the omission of 2 steps of the procedure (out of 8) upon recommendation of the subsidiary body entrusted with the elaboration of the text.
25 Accelerated 1 2 3 4 5 Decision of the Commission (vote) 4/12/2017Accelerated1Decision of the Commission (vote)2Proposed draft standard3Request of written Comments4Amendments / SessionAdoption as a Codex Standard5
26 Achievements 237 Food Standards 43 Codes of Practice 33 Guidelines 4/12/2017Achievements237 Food Standards43 Codes of Practice33 Guidelines197 Pesticides evaluated3274 Limits for pesticides residues25 Guideline limits for contaminants54 Veterinary drugs evaluated289 Limits of veterinary drug residues1300 Food additives evaluated
28 SPS AGREEMENT Important Elements 4/12/2017SPS AGREEMENT Important ElementsBasic RightsRisk AssessmentHarmonizationEquivalenceTransparencyTechnical Assistance38
29 4/12/2017SPS AgreementDiscourages the use of SPS measures as barriers to international tradeRecognizes Codex as a reference on food safetyCodex may be used to settle disputesCalls for harmonization based on Codex
30 Implications of SPS on Codex 4/12/2017Implications of SPS on CodexCodex focuses on risk-based inspection and certification systemsInclusion of HACCP in the General Principles of Food HygieneDevelopment of import/export food inspection and certification guidelinesWork on Risk Analysis - Risk AssessmentCodex reaffirms the role of science in its workCodex revised its acceptance rules
31 SPS Implications for Codex/WTO Members 4/12/2017SPS Implications for Codex/WTO MembersShould base their requirements on Codexshould become more involved in Codex workshould harmonize requirements using Codex
32 Who is responsible for what? GovernmentIndustryConsumer
33 Government’s responsibility Protect the public healthEnsure fair practices in the food tradeLegislation
34 How does government meet its responsibility? establishment of appropriate legislation and regulationscommunication of food quality and safety requirements to industryprovision of training to industry to ensure their ability to develop and implement adequate quality assurance programmesimplementation of controls to ensure compliance of industry to national food quality and safety requirements
35 What is industry’s responsibility? To produce safe food of acceptable qualityHow does it meet its responsibility?By establishing and maintaining adequate quality assurance programmes
36 How do they meet this responsibility? What’s the consumer’s responsibility?To inform regulators and industry of theirconcerns regarding food quality and safetyTo follow relevant instructions and appropriatefood hygiene measuresHow do they meet this responsibility?Through constructive participation of consumer organizations in food standardisation workThrough consumer education
37 Import/Export Food Control 4/12/2017Import/Export Food ControlWHYDetentions and Rejections
38 FAO Global Import Detention Study* 4/12/2017FAO Global Import Detention Study*Few countries maintained recordsFew countries made information availableImported food requirements were not knownImport requirements were differentInadequate communications amongst countriesExporting Countries lack control measuresConfusing CertificatesStudy conducted with the support of the Government of Finland
44 Import/Export Food Control Code of Ethics for International Trade in Food; andPrinciples for Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification
45 CODE OF ETHICS FOR INTERNATIONAL TRADE IN FOOD Principal objective:to stop exporting countries and exporters from dumping poor-quality or unsafe food on to international marketsCurrently being revised by the CCGP
46 Adopted Texts: Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems Guidelines for the Exchange of Information in Food Control Emergency Situations (CAC/GL )Principles for Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification (CAC/GL )Guidelines for the Exchange of Information Between Countries on Rejections of Imported Food (CAC/GL )
47 Adopted Texts: Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems Guidelines for the Design, Operation, Assessment and Accreditation of Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (CAC/GL )Guidelines for the Development of Equivalence Agreements Regarding Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification Systems (CAC/GL )
48 Guidelines for the Exchange of Information Between Countries on Rejections of Imported Food (CAC/GL )Provide the basis for structured information exchange on import rejectionsDeal only with import rejections caused by failure to comply with importing country requirementsIntended to assist countries to conform with the Principles for Food Import and Export Inspection and Certification, in particular the transparency provisions.
49 Reason(s) for rejection Guidelines for the Exchange of Information Between Countries on Rejections of Imported Food - AnnexReason(s) for rejectionBiological/microbiological contaminationChemical contamination (pesticide or veterinary drug residues, heavy metals, etc.)Radionuclide contaminationIncorrect or misleading labellingCompositional defectNon-conformity with food additive requirements
50 Reason(s) for rejection Guidelines for the Exchange of Information Between Countries on Rejections of Imported Food - AnnexReason(s) for rejectionOrganoleptic quality unacceptableTechnical or physical defects(e.g. packaging damage)Incomplete or incorrect certificationDoes not come from an approved country, region or establishmentOther reasons
51 Reason(s) for rejection Guidelines for the Exchange of Information Between Countries on Rejections of Imported Food - AnnexReason(s) for rejectionNOTE: Where imported food has been rejected on the basis of sampling and/or analysis in the importing country, details should be made available on request as to sampling and analytical methods and test results and the identity of the testing laboratory.
52 Conference on International Food Trade Beyond 2000, 11-15 October 1999, Melbourne General Recommendations of the Conference:called upon Member Governments to strengthen their contributions and participation in Codex work.called on countries to adhere to the FAO/WHO Code of Ethics for International Trade in Food in order to ensure that food products exported to developing countries meet national and international requirements.
53 Conference on International Food Trade Beyond 2000, 11-15 October 1999, Melbourne General Recommendations of the Conference:governments should clearly acknowledge the role of consumers, producers and their representative bodies in the development of national and international food standards.Governments of member countries should take all necessary steps to apply Codex standards to all imported, exported and domestically produced and traded foods.
54 FUTURE WORK?Establishing National Codex CommitteesInvolvement in Codex work - meetings, commentsHarmonization of standards with CodexCooperation between government, food industries and consumersDedicated research in food
55 CONTACT ADDRESS: Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme Food Quality and Standards ServiceFAOViale delle Terme di Caracalla00100 Rome, ItalyPhone +39 (06) 57051Fax (06)