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Chapter 15 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Disease

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1 Chapter 15 Preventing Sexually Transmitted Disease

2 Sexually Transmitted Disease
90 % of STD’s occur among persons from 15 – 29. There are over 25 known STDs, some of which are incurable. Risks increase: More sexual partners Alcohol and drug use

3 Curable and Incurable STDs
Viral (incurable) AIDS Genital herpes Genital warts Hepatitis B Bacterial (curable) Chlamydia Gonorrhea Syphilis

4 What is HIV and AIDS? AIDS Aquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome is caused by HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV attacks lymphocytes (white blood cells) called T-cells. The reduction of T-cells results in a weakened immune system The AIDS diagnosis is made once opportunistic diseases occur. Many AIDS victims can survive for many years with the use of antiretroviral therapy, which delays AIDS progression

5 HIV Symptoms There may be no symptoms for up to 10 to 12 years until the immune system is suppressed enough to cause problems Symptoms: Chronic fatigue Swollen lymph gland Unexplained weight loss Fevers, and night sweats.

6 How Is HIV Transmitted Through bodily fluids :
Blood, semen, vaginal secretions and breast milk. Sexual intercourse with an HIV carrier. Sharing of hypodermic needles. Pregnant women to their fetus Mother to their baby (breast milk). Blood transfusions (Rare)

7 HIV: What is Safe? Safe Casual contact. Hugging. Eating after.
Massage. Masturbation. Insects. Unsafe Vaginal sex. Anal sex. Oral sex. Deep kissing. Multiple partners. Sharing needles.

8 Should I Be Tested? Be tested if: You have had any STD.
Shared drug needles. Had sex with a prostitute. Had sex with a man who had sex with another man. Had unprotected sex with three or more partners. Remember: Could take 3 to 6 months before antibodies appear in blood. No symptoms during incubation. Wait to be tested until 6 months with no risk behavior.

9 Genital Herpes: Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) No Cure
Transmission Direct contact with infectious blisters or sores usually on genitals, anus, or mouth. Incubation 2-12 days Typical Symptoms Painful blisters or sores form (heal in 2 to 4 weeks). Sores may reappear throughout life Reoccurrences stimulated by stress, fatigue, and illness Diagnosis Visual examination and tissue culture. Treatment Medications (acyclovir) Danger Can be fatal to infants who acquire the disease.

10 Genital Herpes

11 Genital Warts: Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) No Cure
Transmission Direct contact with visible or non visible warts in genital area. Incubation Range from 1-8 months. Typical Symptoms May have no symptoms Flat or round bumps with cauliflowerlike appearance Diagnosis Visual examination, tissue cultures. Pap smears can detect warts not visible. Common cause of cervical cancer. Treatment Freezing, laser, chemical prep, and surgery. Danger HPV causes cervical cancer. Pap smears are important.

12 Genital Warts

13 Hepatitis B: Virus No Cure
Transmission Vaginal, anal and oral sex, sharing needles, and mother to baby. Incubation 1 – 9 months People can carry the virus with no active infection (and spread to others) Typical Symptoms None Flu-like feelings, itching, and joint pain. Diagnosis Blood test. Treatment A vaccine is available. Dangers Progressive destruction of liver cells, cirrhosis, or liver cancer.

14 Hepatitis B Liver

15 Chlamydia: Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis
Transmission Sexual contact and hand to eye. Incubation 7-14 days or longer. Typical Symptoms Up to 80% of women and 50% of men have no symptoms. Discharge, itching, burning, painful urination, and flu-like symptoms. Diagnosis Culture tests of discharge Treatment Curable with certain antibiotics (not penicillin). Danger If untreated, can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

16 Chlamydia: Bacteria Chlamydia trachomatis

17 Gonorrhea: Bacteria Transmission
Direct contact between mucous membranes, i.e., genitals, anus, and mouth. Incubation 2-14 days. Typical Symptoms No symptoms 80% of women and 20% of men Discharge, burning and itching, painful urination, or a mild sore throat. Genitals, anus, throat, and eyes Diagnosis Microscopic observation of discharge. Culture from site. Treatment Curable with antibiotics. Some strains may become resistant. Danger Can cause PID and sterility in men and women.

18 Gonorrhea: Bacteria

19 Syphilis: Bacteria Treponema pallidum
Transmission Direct contact with infectious sore or rashes. Incubation 1 to 12 weeks before primary stage. Typical Symptoms/Stages Primary: painless chancre sore If not treated leads to secondary syphilis Secondary: 2 weeks to 6 months after chancre. Rash, flu-like symptoms, patchy hair loss. If not treated leads to latent syphilis Latent No longer infectious to carry bacteria and lead to tertiary. Tertiary Stage: 3 to 40 years later, damage to body organs such as the brain and heart, paralysis and death. Diagnosis Physical examination, microscopic test from sore, blood tests. Treatment Cured with antibiotics.

20 Syphilis Chancre Sore

21 Other STD’s Trichomonas – treatable parasite
Vaginosis – inbalance in bacteria Chancroid – curable genital sore Pubic lice – treatable parasite Scabies – treatable parasite

22 Prevention of STDs Abstinence Avoid sexual intercourse. Stay Faithful
Monogamy with one uninfected partner Choose Lower Risk Behaviors No fluid exchange Take Precautions Limit the number of sex partners Use a latex condom Avoid Drug Use Mind-altering drugs, including alcohol If you are sexually active Observe your partners for sores, discharge or needle tracts Get an STD exam every 6 months.

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