Presentation on theme: "Why, What, Where & How by G. Lejeune & C. Carroll (revised 2013) Citing Sources :"— Presentation transcript:
Why, What, Where & How by G. Lejeune & C. Carroll (revised 2013) Citing Sources :
To cite = to identify and give credit to the source of your information. site CITE IS sight RIGHT!
Why do we need to cite sources? To be honest and ethical To recognize intellectual property To avoid plagiarism To avoid academic censure
What needs to be cited? Quotation = exact copy of author’s words with same capitalization, punctuation, etc. Paraphrase = Author’s idea put in your own words, approximately same length Borrowed idea = much shorter summary of author’s original idea. What NOT to cite? Objective facts that can be verified in at least 3 sources do not need to be cited.
Examples of What to Cite Quotation: Anne Bradstreet “ establishes that a woman can be wife, mother, Puritan, and poet without sacrificing any aspect of her life ” ( Young). Paraphrase: Bradstreet was able to balance her life as a wife and mother with her religious and professional obligations (Young). Summary of Idea: Bradstreet led the way for working mothers trying to balance their work and home lives (Young).
How to create an in-text citation Cite the source within the text of your essay (rather than using footnotes) Place the in-text citation at the end of the sentence or paragraph where ideas are used
What to include in an in-text citation (Gibaldi 203-229) Author’s last name in parentheses If author unknown, use title of work Followed by page number(s) with NO PUNCTUATION Sentence punctuation goes AFTER parentheses
Example of In-Text Citation: Book with author known (Gibaldi 204) “As it turned out…the John Brown affair did little to soften Republican antislavery attitudes” (Sewell 516). ________________ (Sewell 516) in the citation above refers to the following source listed on your Works Cited page (bibliography): Sewell, Richard H. “The Republicans and John Brown.” The Complete History of American Slavery, ed. James Miller. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Print.
Example of In-Text Citation: Web page with author unknown Bradstreet “is considered by many to be the first American poet, and … [hers] was the first book written by a woman to be published in the United States ” (“Anne”). ___________________________ “Anne” in the citation above refers to the following source listed on the Works Cited page (bibliography): “Anne Bradstreet.” American Academy of Poets. 2001. Web. 3 Jan. 2012.
Example of In-Text Citation: Author identified in text If you introduce the quotation or idea with the author’s name in the text, you only need to include the page number in the parentheses. Example: As Sewell points out, “the John Brown affair did little to soften Republican antislavery attitudes” (516).
The Purpose of the In-text Citation (Gibaldi 203-229) Word in parentheses of in-text citation = same word as the beginning of the Works Cited (bibliography) entry. This word serves as a signpost to the reader to find the full source in the bibliography, or Works Cited list. May be author’s last name, title of article, title of book, or title of webpage. Long titles may be shortened in the in-text citation.
Works Cited Page In addition to in-text citations, a separate page at the end of your paper will list all sources Keep track of information needed for this page as you do your research Use the MLA style to include the needed information in the correct format
What to Include in a Works Cited entry : Print Sources Author (if known) – Last name, First name Title italicized (long work) or in “quotation marks” (short work) Publisher Place published Date published = copyright date Medium: for example, the word Print, Web, Interview, Videorecording, etc.
What to include in a Works Cited entry Online Sources Author (if known) – Last name, First name Title of webPAGE (ex: “Islam”) Title of webSITE (ex: Virtual Religion Index) Date posted (if known) The word Web to indicate an online source. URL optional (teacher discretion) Date you accessed the site Note: Most of this info may be found on the website home page; items not provided online are simply omitted.
How to format the list of Works Cited (Bibliography) Title is Works Cited List sources in alphabetical order by first word – books & websites mixed together First word = Author’s last name or Title (if no author)
How to format the list of Works Cited cont’d Use Hanging Indent = Second line (+ beyond) is indented 5 spaces Double space the entire Works cited list Do not number entries The next slide is an example of a Works Cited page.
Works Cited “Anne Bradstreet.” Academy of American Poets. 2001. Web. 3 Jan. 2008 Gibaldi, Joseph. MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers. New York: Modern Language Association of American, 1999. Print. “Researching and Documenting Sources.” Purdue Online Writing Lab. Updated: 2000. Web. 2 Feb. 2009. Sewell, Richard H. “The Republicans and John Brown.” The Complete History of American Slavery, Ed. James Miller. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2001. Print. " To My Dear and Loving Husband." Poetry for Students, Vol. 6. Farmington Hills, MI: 1999. Print. Young, Elizabeth V. "Anne Bradstreet: Overview" in Feminist Writers, Ed. Pamela Kester- Shelton, St. James Press, 1996. Gale Literature Resource Center. Web. 8 Jan. 2012.
More Help with Citing Sources MLA Handbook Online (full text) MLA Handbook University of Wisconsin Writing Center Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL) Purdue Online Writing Lab