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Presentation on theme: "INFLAMMATORY DISORDERS"— Presentation transcript:


2 Objectives Explain dermatitis and psoriasis Discuss the education plan for a client with inflammatory disorders List drugs used for treatment of inflammatory disorders Identify foods causing allergies Identify topical drugs used for the client with disorders of the skin Discuss components of a client education plan for the self-use of topical medications

3 DERMATITIS Contact dermatitis from tape. Poison ivy dermatitis.

-direct contact with agents in the environment that a person is hypersensitive to -epidermis becomes inflamed and damaged by the repeated contact -soaps, industrial chemicals, plants ,etc.


6 SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS -lesions at the point of contact. -burning, pain, itching, and swelling. -red with papules -small, raised , solid skin lesions less than 1 cm. in diameter

7 ASSESSMENT SUBJECTIVE DATA -history of the pt.’s activities
-ask for a log of the past 48 hours before the s/s developed.

-traveling and using different personal items. -working with plants or flowers. -severe itching. -difficulty moving the affected area.

-papules /vesicles that generally ooze and weep a clear fluid. -scratch marks. -edema of the area.

10 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS -health history to identify the agent. -intra-dermal skin testing. -elimination diets are used to identify food allergies. -elevated serum IgE levels and eosinopilia.

11 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to scratching
Pain, related to pruritis

12 TREATMENT MEDICAL MANAGEMENT -identify the cause of the hypersensitive
reaction. -treat symptomatically -swelling, itching, discomfort. -oral antihistamines -corticosteroids topically. -prophylactic treatment for asthma

-protect the inflamed area from further harm. -rest the affected area. -wet dressings (Burrow’s solution) -use medical aseptic technique when applying the corticosteroids to the open lesions. -provide a cool environment with humidity. -cold compresses -deceases the circulation and cause vasoconstriction -this relieves the pruritis

-daily baths with an application of oil. -cut the fingertips -decreases excoriation from scratching - wear mittens or gloves). -clothing should be lightweight and loose.

15 TEACHING -keep a history of possible predisposing offensive agents. -avoid the causative agent once it has been identified. -avoid any rubbing of the area -any excessive heat -any soaps -these can all cause itching which could easily re-open the wound

16 PROGNOSIS -removal of the offensive agent results in full recovery
-if there is a recurrence, then the pt. may need to be desensitized.


18 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Dermatitis venenata, exfoliative dermatitis, and dermatitis medicamentosa Etiology/pathophysiology Dermatitis venenata: -Contact with certain plants Exfoliative dermatitis: -Ingestation of heavy metals, antibiotics, aspirin, codeine, gold, or iodine Dermatitis medicamentosa: -Hypersensitivity to a medication

19 DERMATITIS VENENATA -Contact with certain plants - poison oak /poison ivy. -Mild-severe erythema with pruritis -Body undergoes a sensitizing antigen formation on first exposure -Lymphocytes to release irritating chemicals - inflammation - edema - vesiculation

-Ingestation of heavy metals, or by antibiotics, aspirin, codeine, arsenic, mercury gold or iodine. -Skin sloughs off -swollen/reddened -severe pruritis -fever -Patients are hospitalized -Treatment is individualized.

-Cause should be removed and treated -Prevent secondary infections -Avoid further irritation. -Maintain fluid balance.

-Medication causes a hypersensitive reaction -Any drug can cause a reaction -penicillin, codeine, and iron.

Signs and symptoms -mild to severe erythema -pruritus. -vesicles/eruptions -respiratory distress -especially with medicamentosa



26 ASSESSMENT SUBJECTIVE: -Complaints of pruritis/burning pain in the
involved area OBJECTIVE: -Lesions are white in the center/red on the periphery. -Vesicles -Severe dyspnea caused by respiratory distress

27 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Patient history.
A laboratory exam for serum IgE and eosinopilia.


29 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to crusted, open lesions Risk for infection, related to break in skin Deficient knowledge, related to the cause and spread of the disease

30 TREATMENT -Therapeutic baths -Administration of corticosteroids.
-Treatment is directed at the cause.

Dermatitis venenata- -Wash the affected area immediately after contact with the offending allergen -Cool, open, wet dressings to the lesions -Calamine lotion

-Therapeutic baths with colloid solution, lotions, and ointments - alleviates the itching -Emotional support - the physical appearance is difficult for both the patient/family to accept.

Dermatitis medicamentosa -center around the causative drug and discontinuation -if the drug cannot be identified -no drugs should be given -lesions will disappear after the medication has been stopped -PCP must be notified for further orders

34 TEACHING -Wear a medical alert bracelet/necklace showing the name of the allergen -Inspect the lesions daily -exudate, size, and body part. -Fever -have the pt. check his temperature -Medical asepsis/aseptic hand washing technique

35 TEACHING -Appropriate application of topical meds -Keep the involved areas dry when giving care -Own personal items that are not to be shared – -linens, towels, comb, etc. -Family must be involved with the teaching

36 PROGNOSIS Full recovery -when the offending agent is gone

37 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Urticaria (Wheals/Hives) Etiology/pathophysiology Allergic reaction -release of histamine in an antigen-antibody reaction -drugs -food -insect bites -inhalants -emotional stress -exposure to heat or cold

38 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Clinical manifestations/assessment Pruritus Burning pain Wheals/ hives - release of histamine - capillaries to dilate - increased permeability


40 ASSESSMENT SUBJECTIVE: -pruritis -edema -burning pain
-shortness of breath .

41 ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE DATA: -Wheals of varying shapes and sizes
-pale centers/red edges -Intense scratching -Respiratory status may be compromised.

42 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Diagnostic tests -Health history -Allergy skin test -IgE (serum immunoglobulin E) - check for its elevation.


44 TREATMENT Medical management/nursing interventions
-Identify and alleviate cause. -Antihistamine (Benadryl). -Therapeutic bath. -Epinephrine. -Teach patient possible causes. -Teach preventive measures.

45 TEACHING . Signs and symptoms of a anaphylactic reaction.
-shortness of breath -wheezing -cyanosis

46 PROGNOSIS Full recovery when the obnoxious agent is removed/avoided.
Patient must comply with the treatment regimen.

47 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Angioedema Etiology/pathophysiology -form of urticaria -subcutaneous tissue -same offenders as urticaria -eyelids, hands, feet, tongue, larynx, GI, genitalia, or lips -angioedema is a local edema of an entire area rarely occurs in more than a single area at one time

48 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Angioedema Clinical manifestations/assessment -burning /pruritus -lesions that are normal on the outer skin -edema -acute pain -in the GI tract -respiratory distress -in the larynx -edema of an entire area -eyelid, feet, lips, etc.


50 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS -patient history. -history of allergies are more likely to have angioedema.

51 TREATMENT Medical management/nursing interventions -cold compresses.
-antihistamines -epinephrine -corticosteroids -assess respiratory function for s/s of distress.

52 TEACHING -wear a medical alert bracelet or necklace.
-prevent recurrent episodes.

53 PROGNOSIS -With treatment ,the prognosis is excellent


55 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Etiology/pathophysiology -Allergen causes histamine to be released -antigen-antibody reaction -Primarily occurs in infants. -chocolate, orange juice, eggs, wheat.


57 ASSESSMENT -Papules/vesicles -edged with redness -ruptures -discharges a yellow, thick exudate -dries, becomes crusted -infected -skin becomes shiny, de-pigmented -dry scales.

58 ASSESSMENT SUBJECTIVE: -pruritis -scratching
-children are more fussy/irritable -anorexic. -skin is tender to the touch. -family history of allergies -asthma is often associated with children who have eczema.

59 ASSESSMENT -Papules and vesicles -scalp, forehead, cheeks, neck, and extremities. -Erythematic/dryness of area. -Pruritis.

60 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Eczema (atopic dermatitis) Diagnostic tests Health history (heredity is a primary factor). Diet elimination. Skin testing and IgE serum tests. Medical management/nursing interventions Reduce exposure to allergen Hydration of skin Topical steroids Lotions—Eucerin, Alpha-Keri, Lubriderm, or Curel 3-4 times/day

61 ECZEMA (atopic dermatitis)

62 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to open lesions
Risk for situational low self-esteem, related to change in body image Risk for infection, related to open lesions

-therapeutic baths -occlusive preparations -wet dressings -maximizes the hydration of the skin -topical steroids -lesions healed-lotions are used -Eucerin, Alpha Keri, Lubriderm, Curel - apply 3-4 times/day.

-monitor emotions -anger, depression anxiety, embarrassment, guilt, etc. -encourage the pt. to verbalize his feelings -use effective listening skills -open-ended questions.



67 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Acne vulgaris Etiology/pathophysiology -Occluded oil glands (the sebaceous glands) -The cause is unknown -Androgens increase the size of the oil gland -It primarily occurs in adolescents -Influencing factors -Diet -Stress -Heredity -Overactive hormones

68 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Acne vulgaris Clinical manifestations/assessment -Tenderness and edema -Oily, shiny skin -Pustules -Comedones -blackheads - the effect of oxygen on sebum, not dirt -Scarring from traumatized lesions


-how is the acne affects his/her lifestyle. -face and chin. -lesions increase with emotional upsets/ stress

71 ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVE: Note the presence of edema in the involved area.

72 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Blood samples for androgen level Health history
Inspection of lesion

73 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to occluded oil glands Situational low self-esteem, related to physical appearance Social isolation, related to decreased self-esteem

74 Inflammatory Disorders of the Skin
Acne vulgaris Medical management/nursing interventions Keep skin clean Keep hands and hair away from area Wash hair daily Water-based makeup Topical therapy Benzoyl peroxide, vitamin A acids, antibiotics, sulfur- zinc lotions Systemic therapy Tetracycline, isotretinoin (Accutane)




-Adolescents may not comply with long-term treatment regimens. -Evaluate the pt.’s understanding/reaction to his acne disorder. -What does acne mean to the pt.? -Focus on: -skin care -compliance -emotional support

-Prevention -identification of factors that directly increase acne -Cleanliness decreases infection/promotes healing. -The skin should be washed 2-3 times/ day with a medicated soap -Improvement is slow so compliance is hard.


-Often it takes 3 weeks of treatment -Family support -Primary cause for low self-esteem -Not comparing oneself with others -Give positive reinforcement -Focus on his strengths

82 TEACHING -Both the physical and emotional needs of the pt. -Diet, hygiene, stress reduction, makeup, and medications. -Coping skills. -Adolescent should talk about his feelings -decreases any long-term effects that acne may have on his personality.

83 PROGNOSIS Prognosis is good.
Lasting psychological effects can occur from the scarring that may result. In rare cases, eczema may develop from taking med: for acne, such as isotretinoin.

84 Psoriasis

85 Psoriasis Etiology/pathophysiology Noninfectious.
Skin cells divide more rapidly than normal -normal– skin replaced every 28 days -psoriasis-skin replaced every 7 days. -occur at any age. -hereditary. -at the epidermis. -no known predisposing factors. -severe scaling is the result of the rapid cell division.

-feelings of depression, frustration, loneliness. -people may stare at them.

87 ASSESSMENT Clinical manifestations/assessment
-raised, erythematous, circumscribed, silvery, scaling plaques -scalp, elbows, knees, chin, and trunk -primary lesion is papular.

88 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS -no special tests.
-observation of the patient/symptoms.

89 TREATMENT Goal-slow the proliferation of the epithelial layers of the skin. Topical steroids Keratolytic agents -occlusive wet dressings to decrease inflammation Tar preparations Salicylic acid Reduces shedding of the outer layer of skin Photochemotherapy PUVA Oral psoralen Ultraviolet light

90 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to proliferation of epithelial cells Situational low self-esteem, related to appearance Social isolation, related to decreased self-esteem

-Administration of the treatment modality. -Rest -Promote psychological well-being -counseling, exercise, etc. -Focus on positive attributes. -Medical asepsis. -Conceal obvious lesions.

92 TEACHING -Nature of the disease -Treatments
-Compliance with medical care. -Disease is not CURABLE -Patient needs to understand this.

93 PROGNOSIS -Chronic disease. -Clinical course is variable
-less than 50% will have a prolonged remission. -Severity: -cosmetic problem to a life-threatening emergency

94 Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)
Etiology/pathophysiology Autoimmune disorder - antibodies against its own cells Inflammation of almost any body part. Skin, joints, kidneys, and serous membranes Affects women more than men -9 times more women than men Contributing factors Immunological, hormonal, genetic, and viral. Origin still remains a mystery.

95 SLE -Disease of exacerbations and remissions
-triggered by contributing factors. -Inflammatory lesions -affect several organ systems -skin, joints, kidneys, and serous membranes. -T-suppressor cells decrease

96 SLE Clinical manifestations/assessment
Erythema butterfly rash over nose and cheeks Alopecia Butterfly rash - occurs in 10-50% of patients Photosensitivity Organic brain syndrome

97 SLE Polyarthralgias and polyarthritis -90-95% of patients
Pleuritic pain Pleural effusion Pericarditis Vasculitis Oral ulcers Anemia -most common.

98 SLE Neurological signs (seizures) Renal disorders
Hematological disorders


100 Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flare.
Figure 3-11 (From Habif, T.P., et al. [2005]. Skin disease: diagnosis and treatment. [2nd ed.]. St. Louis: Mosby.) Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) flare.

101 SLE Diagnostic Tests Antinuclear antibody (ANA) DNA antibody
Complement CBC Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) Coagulation profile Rheumatoid factor

102 DIAGNOSTIC TESTS Rapid plasma reagin Skin and renal biopsy
C-reactive protein (CRP) Coomb’s test LE cell prep (lupus erythematosus) Urinalysis Chest x-ray

103 NURSING DIAGNOSES Impaired skin integrity, related to skin rash, hair loss, skin atrophy, discoid lesions involving other parts of the body.

104 NURSING DIAGNOSES Disturbed body image, related to baldness, skin pattern pathologies

105 TREATMENT GOALS: -Relief /managaement of symptoms. -Inducement of remission. -Prevention of complications. -Suppression of inflammation.

106 SLE Medical management/nursing interventions No cure
-treat symptoms, induce remission, alleviate exacerbation. Medications Nonsteroidal ant-inflammatory agents. anti-malarial drugs (hydroxychloroquine). corticosteroids ( prednisone) -Peak amounts of steroids help to achieve remission Anti-neoplastic agents ( Imuran, Cytoxan). Topical corticosteroid creams are used for the rash.

107 MEDICATIONS Anti-infective drugs -treat/prevent infections
-specific agent depends on the infection site -Cipro for a UTI. Dialysis for pts. with renal involvement. Lab Tests -assess renal function (BUN/serum creatinine) Analgesics -pain Diuretics -fluid retention

108 TREATMENT Balance rest and exercise Balanced diet
Avoid direct sunlight

-Thorough assessment -multi-systemic disease. -Skin care -avoiding direct sunlight -protective clothing -sunscreen. -Balance rest and activity. -Recognize s/s of exacerbation -fever, rash, cough

-Recognize the s/s of infection. -Reduce stress. -Balanced diet -Reduction of sodium intake.

-emotional, psychosocial, and spiritual support. -activity level -prevention of infection -potential complications -information on living a normal life.

112 Pharmacology for the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders
Corticosteroids Emollients Antipsoriatics

113 Corticosteroids -local inflammatory disorders -Topical administration
-avoids systemic adverse effects -the inflammatory site must be localized and accessible -effective and relatively safe form of therapy -prescription and non-prescription products

-Monitor site for healing- -increased use of topical steroids decreases vasoconstriction -decreases the absorption of the steroid -requires a higher amount/more frequent usage -Monitor for increased facial redness when decreasing the amount of topical steroid secondary to tolerance. -Skin atrophy, striae (stretch marks), steroid allergies or skin infections -Fungal infections will not resolve with the use of topical steroids

115 Emollients -Dry skin -infections, excessive bathing or strong soaps/detergents -pruritus, cracking, and predisposition to skin disorders -prevent the loss of additional skin moisture be forming a occlusive barrier on the skin surface -waxes, fats and/or oils -urea-enhances the skin’s ability to hold moisture -Oils, creams, lotions, bath oils -daily after showering of bathing -do not apply to skin lesions that are moist/exudative

116 Antipsoriatics Alefacept-
-first antibiological therapy for moderate to severe chronic plague psoriasis -provides longer remissions the other treatments -adverse effects- serious infection Efalizumab- -immunosuppressive recombinant monoclonal antibody -stimulates the bodies immune system’s ability to fight disease -adverse effects- thrombocytopenia, hypersensitivity,, headache, fever, chills, nausea and myalgia

117 Food Allergies Definition:
-Ingestion of food that the person’s immune system incorrectly identifies as harmful - 4% of adults have food allergies -6-8% of children age 4 years of younger

118 -Immune system creates food specific antibodies.
-Antigens which are foreign substances (food) -produces the immune response -antibodies start destroying the antigens -immune system discharges large amounts of histamine and chemicals -cause the allergic reaction


120 Allergic Reaction Respiratory -Tongue swelling, dyspnea
Gastrointestinal -Nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhea Skin -Hives, rash Cardiovascular -Tachycardia, hypotension Neurological -Anxiety, loss of consciousness

121 Anaphylaxis -Severe reaction to allergen
-Swelling of the lips, tongue, throat -blocks the upper airway resulting in suffocation -Emergency situation

122 Common allergy foods: -Eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, fish, shellfish, wheat, soy -Peanuts and tree nuts- severe reactions! -0.6% of Americans are allergic to peanuts -young children -allergic to eggs, milk, peanuts, tree nuts and soy. -outgrow their allergies -usually be allergic to peanuts and tree nuts for the rest of their life.

123 -are hereditary -a child having allergies increases when both parents have allergies -allergic to the common foods eaten in their countries -rice allergies are common in Japan

124 Diagnosis -family history of allergies -food diary -scratch test
-RAST (radioallergosorbant test) -measures the presence f food-specific IgE in the blood -elimination of food from the diet -food challenge -capsules of different foods and a placebo -ingested and then followed to see if an allergic reaction occurs (rarely done)

125 Treatment- -avoid foods that cause allergies Prognosis -not curable but manageable -multiple medications being researched

126 Nursing Considerations
-Carefully reading food labels -Inquire of the food ingredients when eating out. -Counseling by a dietician on the foods that their children need to avoid -Medical alert bracelet with the name of food allergy

127 Epinephrine injection
-carried at all times - person, parents of children - severe/ anaphylactic reaction to foods or medications Epi-pen auto injection -pre-measured epinephrine injection - costs $50 Along with a Epi-pen the person should carry: -food allergies -3 emergency contacts -Physicians name and telephone number -description of how to treat the reaction

128 Pharmacology of skin disorders
Topical antiseptics/germicides Topical Anti-Infectives Topical Cortico-steroids Topical Local Anesthetics Topical Enzymes Keratolytics

129 Topical Antiseptics and Germicides
Long history of usage -spices, vegetable oils and extracts of trees/plants -1800’s Pastuer, Koch -substances that slowed or destroyed pathogenic organisms Definition: -an agent that kills or inhibits the growth of microorganisms that is applied to living tissue

130 Types- -Hibiclens -Alcohol -Phisohex -Hydrogen -Peroxide -Iodine -Mercurochrome -Betadine -Silver Nitrate -Silvadene -Dakin’s Solution -Septi-Soft

131 Nursing implications-
-Specific to the type of antiseptic -Observe for hypersensitivity -Skin staining/bleaching

132 Topical Anti-infectives
-Prevent infection-minor skin abrasions -treat superficial skin infections -Several antibiotics are combined in a single product -produces a broad spectrum coverage for multiple organisms

133 Types- -Bacitracin -Polymyoxin -Neomycin -Gentamycin -Tetracycline -Erythromycin

134 Nursing Considerations
-hypersensitivity -systemic absorption if applying to a extensively damaged skin -Neomycin -observe for changes in renal function: -decreased urine output -elevated Creatine and BUN - changes in hearing.

135 Topical Local Anesthetics
Inhibits the conduction of nerve impulses from sensory nerves - reduces pain/pruritis -insect bites, burns and plant allergies -patches, ointments, creams, sprays, liquids of jelly form -Types- “caine” -Lidocaine -Benzocaine -Tetracaine -Cocaine

136 Nursing Considerations
-absorbed systemically through damaged or diseased skin -local or systemic adverse effects -if the medication is applied to a large area of skin -systemic hypersensitivity -CNS stimulant -hypotension -slow heart rate -possible cardiac arrest -avoid in clients -hypersensitivity to “caine” medications -severely traumatized skin

137 Topical Enzymes Remove dead tissue
-enhances the formation of new tissue - promotes wound healing Selectively digest dead tissue Specifically digest protein of dead tissue Destroys components of the necrotic tissue mass.

138 Types- Collagenase (Santyl) -digests collagen that 75% of skin tissue Fibrinolysin/Desoxyribonuclease (Elase) -dissolves the fibrin structure of blood clots/ DNA strands - make up necrotic tissue.

139 Nursing considerations
Santyl- The wound must be free of antiseptic/ antibacterial medications Compatible with triple antibiotic medication Apply Burrows solution to stop the enzymatic action Elase- Observe for hypersenitivity/allergic reaction

140 Keratolytics Remove excess keratin layer of skin
-acne, warts, psoriasis, corns calluses and fungal infections Breaks down the protein structure of the keratin layer -easier removal of the compacted cellular material Types- Salicylic Acid, Lactic acid

141 Nursing Considerations
-Apply after bathing -Soaked in water for several minutes -Occlude with a dressing/plastic wrap after applying medication -Apply overnight and remove in the morning -Repeated applications will probably control the hyperkeratinic skin growth -occasional reapplications may be needed for reoccurrence


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