2 FilterEvery structure in the vocal tract above the vocal folds acts in some way as a filter for the sound produced at the glottis.Structures may change the shape of the tract or act as resonators for the soundThese factors make the voice individual.
3 Cranial bonesCranial bones cover the brain and give protection. They may appear solid ut many have air filled cavities called sinuses.Sinuses have poor blood, nerve and vascular supply. They are common sites for infection. Mucous from the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses drain into the nasal cavities
10 Mandible U shaped bone which forms the lower jaw Only movable bone in the facial skeletonMany muscle attach to itArticulates with the cranium at the temporomandibular jointTMJ allows opening/closing, sideto side and front/back movement of jaw for speech, chewing and facial expression
14 Velo-pharyngeal portPassage between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx.Controlled by the muscles of the velum/soft palate which are all considered extrinsic except the muscle of the uvula
15 Muscles of palatal movement ElevatorsLevator veli palatini (from temporal bone)Musculus uvulae (NB uvula itself has very few muscle fibres)DepressorsPalatoglossus (anterior faucial pillar) can lower palate or left tonguePalatopharyngeus (posterior faucial pillar) 4 functions relating to swallowing
16 Muscles of palatal movement TensorsTensor veli Palatini- dilates the eustacian tube and tenses and flattens the soft palate
18 TongueThe tongue is used for chewing and swallowing but has also been developed for speechIt can depress, flatten, extend/retract, curl sides and curl tip.With each change in shape there is a change in the acoustic characteristics of the vocal tract.
22 Extrinsic muscle of tongue GenioglossusRetract, protudes,depressesStyloglossusRaises tongue tip up and backHyoglossusPulls sides down and backPalatoglossus/glossopalatineLowers palate or elevates base of tongue
24 Muscle of faceContribute to facial expression, chewing and articulationGreatest affect on vocal tract is the movement of the lipsInteraction with nearly a dozen other paired muscles gives rise to a wide range if movements
28 Oral and Pharyngeal cavity The oral cavity (volume 100cc) is a primary location for the articulatory shaping of the voice signal. The articulators -- the lips, tongue, teeth, and jaws -- are responsible for shaping the voiced signal into the different types of phonemes such as consonants and vowels. The oral cavity is bounded by the lips anteriorly, the cheeks laterally, the hard and soft palates superiorly, the tongue inferiorly, and the faucial pillars and pharyngeal wall posteriorlyLabel tonsils, epiglottis, adenoids, larynx, vocal cords, etc Pharyngeal Cavity volume 80ccThe pharyngeal cavity runs from the base of the cranium to the top of the oesophagus at an approximate level of the sixth cervical vertebrae. The pharynx is formed primarily by three muscles arranged in a circular pattern that attach to structures anteriorly. The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the constrictors, include the superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles. The pharyngeal space allows communication between the nasal, oral, and laryngeal cavities. It forms a connecting corridor located posteriorly to the nose, mouth, and larynx. The pharynx is subdivided into three functional levels that correspond to the structures found anteriorly. The nasopharynx is located posterior to the nasal cavity, the oropharynx is located posterior to the oral cavity, and the laryngopharynx /Hypo pharynx is located posterior to the larynx. Supraglottic Vocal Tract may also be used as a term to includePharyngeal constrictorsThese constrictors are like plastic cups stacked inside one another. They are supplied by the pharyngeal plexus. Both motor and sensory fibres from the Trigeminal and Glossopharyngeal and Vagus nerves.Palatal muscles which are: Levator veli palatini, Tensor veli palatini PalatoglossusPalatopharyngeus Salpingpharyngeus