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Vocal pedagogy Articulatory anatomy.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocal pedagogy Articulatory anatomy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vocal pedagogy Articulatory anatomy

2 Filter Every structure in the vocal tract above the vocal folds acts in some way as a filter for the sound produced at the glottis. Structures may change the shape of the tract or act as resonators for the sound These factors make the voice individual.

3 Cranial bones Cranial bones cover the brain and give protection. They may appear solid ut many have air filled cavities called sinuses. Sinuses have poor blood, nerve and vascular supply. They are common sites for infection. Mucous from the frontal, sphenoid, ethmoid and maxillary sinuses drain into the nasal cavities




7 Sphenoid and ethmoid bones
These are central to the skull The ethmoid lies directly inform of the sphenoid The sphenoid is associated with the functions of sight, hearing and smell

8 Sphenoid bone

9 Ethmoid bone

10 Mandible U shaped bone which forms the lower jaw
Only movable bone in the facial skeleton Many muscle attach to it Articulates with the cranium at the temporomandibular joint TMJ allows opening/closing, sideto side and front/back movement of jaw for speech, chewing and facial expression

11 Mandible

12 Maxilla Forms the upper jaw, roof of the mouth, lateral walls of the nose, part of eye sockets and attachment of upper teeth The maxillary sinuses are the largest of the cranial and facial sinuses

13 Maxilla

14 Velo-pharyngeal port Passage between the oropharynx and the nasopharynx. Controlled by the muscles of the velum/soft palate which are all considered extrinsic except the muscle of the uvula

15 Muscles of palatal movement
Elevators Levator veli palatini (from temporal bone) Musculus uvulae (NB uvula itself has very few muscle fibres) Depressors Palatoglossus (anterior faucial pillar) can lower palate or left tongue Palatopharyngeus (posterior faucial pillar) 4 functions relating to swallowing

16 Muscles of palatal movement
Tensors Tensor veli Palatini- dilates the eustacian tube and tenses and flattens the soft palate


18 Tongue The tongue is used for chewing and swallowing but has also been developed for speech It can depress, flatten, extend/retract, curl sides and curl tip. With each change in shape there is a change in the acoustic characteristics of the vocal tract.

19 Divisions of tongue

20 Intrinsic muscle of tongue
Superior longitudinal Elevates, assists retraction, moves tip Inferior longitudinal Pulls tip down, assist retraction Transverse Pulls side edges to midline Vertical flattens

21 Intrinsic muscle of tongue

22 Extrinsic muscle of tongue
Genioglossus Retract, protudes,depresses Styloglossus Raises tongue tip up and back Hyoglossus Pulls sides down and back Palatoglossus/glossopalatine Lowers palate or elevates base of tongue

23 Extrinsic muscle of tongue

24 Muscle of face Contribute to facial expression, chewing and articulation Greatest affect on vocal tract is the movement of the lips Interaction with nearly a dozen other paired muscles gives rise to a wide range if movements

25 Muscle of face

26 Muscles of pharynx Important in swallowing
Affect the filter/shape of vocal tract and velo-pharyngeal opening Three fan shaped constrictors

27 Muscles of pharynx

28 Oral and Pharyngeal cavity
The oral cavity (volume 100cc) is a primary location for the articulatory shaping of the voice signal. The articulators -- the lips, tongue, teeth, and jaws -- are responsible for shaping the voiced signal into the different types of phonemes such as consonants and vowels. The oral cavity is bounded by the lips anteriorly, the cheeks laterally, the hard and soft palates superiorly, the tongue inferiorly, and the faucial pillars and pharyngeal wall posteriorly Label tonsils, epiglottis, adenoids, larynx, vocal cords, etc Pharyngeal Cavity volume 80cc The pharyngeal cavity runs from the base of the cranium to the top of the oesophagus at an approximate level of the sixth cervical vertebrae. The pharynx is formed primarily by three muscles arranged in a circular pattern that attach to structures anteriorly. The pharyngeal muscles, also known as the constrictors, include the superior, middle and inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscles. The pharyngeal space allows communication between the nasal, oral, and laryngeal cavities. It forms a connecting corridor located posteriorly to the nose, mouth, and larynx. The pharynx is subdivided into three functional levels that correspond to the structures found anteriorly. The nasopharynx is located posterior to the nasal cavity, the oropharynx is located posterior to the oral cavity, and the laryngopharynx /Hypo pharynx is located posterior to the larynx. Supraglottic Vocal Tract may also be used as a term to include Pharyngeal constrictors These constrictors are like plastic cups stacked inside one another. They are supplied by the pharyngeal plexus. Both motor and sensory fibres from the Trigeminal and Glossopharyngeal and Vagus nerves. Palatal muscles which are: Levator veli palatini, Tensor veli palatini Palatoglossus Palatopharyngeus Salpingpharyngeus

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