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Traumatic Brain Injury Presented by: David L Strauss, Ph.D. ReMed.

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Presentation on theme: "Traumatic Brain Injury Presented by: David L Strauss, Ph.D. ReMed."— Presentation transcript:

1 Traumatic Brain Injury Presented by: David L Strauss, Ph.D. ReMed

2 What is Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI)?

3 Two types of brain injury occur Closed brain injury Open brain injury

4 Closed Head Injury Resulting from falls, motor vehicle crashes, etc. Focal damage and diffuse damage to axons Effects tend to be broad (diffuse) No penetration to the skull



7 Open Head Injury Results from bullet wounds, etc. Largely focal damage Penetration of the skull Effects can be just as serious


9 What Happens Immediately After TBI?

10 TBI: A biological event within the brain Tissue damage Bleeding Swelling


12 TBI: Changes in functioning Loss of consciousness/coma Other changes due to the TBI Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA)

13 Injured Brain Does not mend fully Leads to problems in functioning

14 What Do We Mean by Severity of Injury Amount of brain tissue damage

15 How to measure “severity”? Duration of loss of consciousness Initial score on Glasgow Coma Scale (GSC) Length of post-traumatic amnesia Rancho Los Amigos Scale (1 to 10)

16 Mild injury 0-20 minute loss of consciousness GCS = 13-15 PTA < 24 hours Moderate injury 20 minutes to 6 hours LOC GCS = 9-12 Severe injury > 6 hours LOC GCS = 3-8

17 What Happens as the Person with Moderate or Severe Injury Begins to Recover After Injury?


19 Recovery A multi-stage process Continues for years Differs for each person

20 What is the Long-term Impact of a Moderate or Severe TBI in the Person’s Functioning?

21 Impact depends on Severity of initial injury Rate/completeness of physiological recovery Functions affected Meaning of dysfunction to the individual Resources available to aid recovery Areas of function not affected by TBI

22 Areas of function affected Cognition

23 Cognitive functions Attention Concentration Memory Speed of Processing Confusion Perseveration Impulsiveness Language Processing “Executive functions”

24 Areas of function affected Cognitive Sensory/Perceptual

25 Sensory/perceptual functions Vision Hearing Smell Vestibular Taste Touch Balance

26 Areas of function Cognitive Sensory/perceptual Seizures

27 Areas of function affected Cognitive Sensory/perceptual Seizures Other physical changes

28 Physical paralysis/spasticity Chronic pain Control of bowel and bladder Sleep disorders Loss of stamina Appetite changes Regulation of body temperature Menstrual difficulties

29 Areas of function affected Cognitive Sensory/perceptual Seizures Other physical changes Social-emotional

30 Dependent behaviors Emotional lability Lack of motivation Irritability Aggression Depression Disinhibition Denial/lack of awareness

31 Recovery vs. “improvement”

32 Permanence of change? Physical recovery Reeducation of the individual Environmental modifications

33 What Happens With Mild (or Minor) TBI?

34 Mild TBI Lesser levels of brain damage Brief or no loss of consciousness Often referred to as ‘concussion’

35 Mild injury is important to discuss Long-term impact for 15% Don’t see that TBI is cause of deficits Repeated injury leads to problem emergence-”second impact syndrome” 300,000 sports and recreational injuries CT, MRI and EEG are usually normal

36 Effects of mild TBI: outcomes Problems disappear on their own in about 85% of cases Compensatory skills acquired Education prevents emotional upset (“shattered sense of self”)

37 Effects of mild TBI: outcomes Problems are not attributed to TBI Compensatory skills are not learned Best approach is early education and information Best rehab assessment is neuropsychology

38 How is TBI Different (or the Same) for Those Injured as Children.

39 Children Brain still developing Brain more flexible than adult’s Fewer educational “building blocks” Effects may not emerge immediately Follow the child over time

40 How Common is TBI, and Who is the Typical Person with TBI?

41 Who is the typical person with TBI? 4:1 ratio, males to females 15 to 25 years of age 1.5 million brain injuries per year in US Alcohol is the leading risk factor

42 Adolescents and young adults: highest rate Aged: second highest

43 What is the Course of Treatment for Those with TBI?

44 Integrated System of Care Inpatient Rehabilitation Programs Coma Recovery Programs (rarely used) Extended Care Programs ( typically inappropriate) Outpatient Programs Community Support Services

45 Community/Post Acute Services Outpatient In clinic At home/work/community

46 Community/Post Acute Services Residential –neurorehabilitation/transitional living –neurobehavioral intensive –long-term supported living

47 Brain Injury Association of PA Brain Injury Resource Line 1-866-635-7097

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