 # Friction Contact Induction. Current Electricity What is the difference between static electricity and current electricity ? Static electricity is stationary.

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Friction Contact Induction

Current Electricity

What is the difference between static electricity and current electricity ? Static electricity is stationary or collects on the surface of an object, whereas current electricity is flowing very rapidly through a conductor. The flow of electricity in current electricity has electrical pressure or voltage. Electric charges flow from an area of high voltage to an area of low voltage. Water pressure and voltage behave in similar ways.

CURRENT The flow of charges in a circuit is called current. Current (I) is measured in Amperes or Amps (A).

Electricity - electrons moving through a metal wire.

Direct current versus alternating current AC vs DC : What’s the difference?

Electricity D.C. Direct Current A.C. Alternating Current

Direct Current (DC) Current flows in ONE direction Think of water flowing in a stream EX. Batteries Alternating Current (AC) Current flows back and forth a regular intervals called cycles EX. Comes from generators and is carried to your homes through power lines Measured using an ammeter, unit of electric current is ampere, A (amps)

Voltage (Potential Difference) Potential Energy – the energy stored in an object Ex. Apple falling off a tree (converting potential energy into motion) – The greater the height of the apple, the greater its potential difference Potential difference (voltage, V) is what causes a current to flow in a closed circuit Measured using a voltmeter

Electrochemical Cells Ex. BATTERIES!!! – a combination of electrochemical cells A package of chemicals that converts chemical energy to electrical energy that is stored in charged particles. A simple electrochemical cells includes: – Electrolyte: a liquid/paste that conducts electricity (ex. Citric acid) – Electrodes: 2 metal strips that react with the electrolyte (one will gain e-(-ve), one will lose e- (+ve) (ex. zinc, copper)

Wet Cell Uses a liquid electrolyte Contains two connected plates made of different metals or metal compounds in a conducting solution. Most car batteries have a series of six cells, each containing lead and lead oxide in a sulfuric acid solution. 2 Types of Electrochemical Cells

Dry Cell Uses paste instead of a liquid electrolyte The zinc container of the dry cell contains a moist chemical paste surrounding a carbon rod suspended in the middle.

TermSymbolDefinition Measured in (Units) CURRENT I -the flow of electrons through a conductor Amperes (A) VOLTAGE V - also known as “Potential Difference” - “push/force” of electricity - Potential energy per quantity of electrons Volts (V) RESISTANCE R - measures how easily electricity flows along a certain path ohm

What is electrical resistance ? Resistance (R)is the opposition to the flow of an electric current, causing the electrical energy to be converted to thermal energy or light. The metal which makes up a light bulb filament or stovetop eye has a high electrical resistance. This causes light and heat to be given off.

ohm (Ω). The unit for measuring resistance is the ohm (Ω).

What are electric circuits ? Circuits typically contain a voltage source, a wire conductor, and one or more devices which use the electrical energy.

Drawing Circuit Diagrams

Drawing Circuit Diagrams RULES 1.Always use a ruler to draw straight lines for the conducting wires 2.Make right-angle corners ( ∟ ) so that your finished diagrams is a rectangle Contain 4 basic parts: – Electrical source – Switch – Load – Conducting wire

What is a series circuit? provides a single pathway for the current to flow. If the circuit breaks, all devices using the circuit will fail.

What is a parallel circuit? has multiple pathways for the current to flow. If the circuit is broken the current may pass through other pathways and other devices will continue to work.

Lamp 1Lamp 2 Switch 1Switch 2

A closed circuit is one in which the pathway of the electrical current is complete and unbroken. An open circuit is one in which the pathway of the electrical current is broken. A switch is a device in the circuit in which the circuit can be closed (turned on) or open (turned off). What is the difference between an open circuit and a closed circuit ?

How is household wiring arranged? Most household wiring is logically designed with a combination of parallel circuits. Electrical energy enters the home usually at a breaker box or fuse box and distributes the electricity through multiple circuits. A breaker box or fuse box is a safety feature which will open.

References A Dercho Investigating Science 9 -Pearson

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