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Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 4/8/14.

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Presentation on theme: "Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 4/8/14."— Presentation transcript:

1 Water, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance 4/8/14

2 Balance Water and electrolytes (molecules that release ions in water) must maintain a balance of quantities coming in and leaving. Mechanisms in the body are responsible for this balance Water and electrolyte balance interdependent – Electrolytes are dissolved in water – Anything that alters electrolyte concentration will alter the concentration of water.

3 Fluid Compartments Intracellular fluid compartments – All the water and electrolytes that cell membranes enclose (fluid inside of cells) – 63% of total body water by volume Extracellular fluid compartments – 37% by volume – all of the fluids outside cells. Tissues, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels Transcellular fluid = cerebrospinal fluid, fluids in the eye, joints, glands, and body cavities.

4 Water Balance Exists when water intake equals water output. Depends on our thirst centers in the brain to vary water intake and on the kidney’s ability to vary water output.

5 Water Intake Average adult takes in about 2,500 milliliters of water daily. – 60% by drinking water or beverages – 30% comes from moist foods – 10% is a by-product of the oxidative metabolism of nutrients = water of metabolism

6 Regulation of Water Intake Primary regulator of water intake is thirst. – Thirst center is in the hypothalamus of the brain. – A thirsty person usually has a dry mouth caused by loss of extracellular water and the resulting decreased flow of saliva. – Thirst mechanism is normally triggered whenever the total body water decreases by as little as 1%. – Act of drinking water distends the stomach triggering nerve impulses that inhibit the thirst mechanism.

7 Water Output Water normally enters the body through the mouth, but can be lost through a variety of routes. – Urine, feces, sweat, evaporation from the skin, lungs during breathing – 60% urine, 6% feces, 6% sweat. 28% lost through skin and lungs. These percentages will change with level of physical activity, environment, etc.

8 Regulation of Water Output Sweat, feces, and evaporation are necessary functions (cooling, waste elimination). Thus, primary regulation of water output is urine production. – If a person takes in too much water, urine production increases to maintain the balance, vice versa. Caffeine inhibits the reabsorption of sodium ions and other solutes, resulting in increased urine volume.

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