Presentation on theme: "Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns"— Presentation transcript:
1 Section 3: Climate and Vegetation Patterns Big Idea: All the world’s climates support a variety of ecosystems.Write the bold vocab words and definition.Get out another piece of paper and title it 3.3 notes.
2 How do the two tropical climates differ? World Geography Today4/11/2017Read to DiscoverHow do the two tropical climates differ?What conditions are common in dry climates?What climates are found in the middle latitudes?What characterizes high-latitude and highland climates?Chapter 3
3 Tropical Humid Climate Tropical Wet and Dry Climates Tropical ClimatesEcosystems- community of plants, animals and non-living things in an area. Vary around the world.Tropical Humid ClimateClose to equatorWarm temperaturesRainfall all yearReceives Sun’s rays directly all yearRising warm airRain forestsMonsoonsTropical Wet and Dry ClimatesNorth &south of tropical humidCaused by seasonal change in this areaAlternating wet &dry seasonsSavannasTropical humid climate- never cold weather because close to the cold equator. Generally warm and plenty of rainfall. Because it is warm and humid warm air is always rising in the tropics. This brings daily and even hourly thunderstorms. Remember that warm air rises and then condensates. Sometimes the rain comes only at certain times of the year in downfalls called monsoons (India).Show 3 min video on monsoons in IndiaTropical wet and dry climate – just north or south of the tropical humid climates. Seasonal changes because of how the sun hit just above or below the equator. During the summer the suns rays are almost direct. Because of this temperatures rise creating low and unstable pressure areas. This leads to heavy rains. During the summer the sun changes position and the raise are not as direct. This brings high pressure and creating cool and stable air-dry season. This supports savannas like in Africa- which are tropical grass lands.Question to ask students-How does the tropical wet and dry climate differ from the tropical humid climate?Tropical wet and dry-distinct wet and dry seasonsTropical humid climate- wet throughout the year.
4 Dry Climate Areas-Arid & Semiarid Arid climate (desert)-dry, low rainfallGenerally centered about 30 degrees north & south of equatorSubtropical high-pressure zone causes sinking dry air, with little rain.Winters may be very cold, summers very hot.Hardy plants & animalsSemiarid climate- btw humid & arid areas/ more moisture than the Arid climate.Arid is formed because of high pressure zones with sinking stable dry air all year. Sometimes caused by the orographic effect.If the arid area is in the middle of the country away from moisture bering winds the temperatures may be extreme. Winters harsh / summer hotThey can also be found along the coast of some countries like Africa where the ocean currents keep the pressure high which is very stable.The semiarid climate- this is a transition zone between the tropical and arid climate. Receive more moisture than deserts but less than the humid areas. Where rain is heavy enough there is plant life.
5 Middle-Latitude Climates Middle latitudes – found between the tropical and the high polar regions.Mediterranean—Long, dry summers & mild winters; scrub woodland vegetationHumid Subtropical—Hot, humid summers & mild winters; temperate forestsMarine West Coast—Mild all year; may support dense forestsHumid Continental—Variable, with four seasons; enough rain to support forestsMiddle latitudes- found at the middle latitudes (USA) temperate climates-we do not have to extreme conditions that are found in the tropical or the high latitudes.Mediterranean – located in southern Europe and along west coasts of continents with cool continents ( our west coast). They do not usually exist beyond inland mountains. Sinking high pressure zone cause long dry sunny summers. During winter middle latitude storms bring rain.Humid – our east coast. Or Greece where warm ocean currants bring warm moist air. Summers are warm and humid/winter are mild with maybe some snow. Hurricanes can be a danger here. Two types of forest, deciduous forests-loose leave during one part of the year. Coniferous forest keep green leaves all year.Marine west coast climate is heavily influenced by oceans. Remember the oceans allow for more stable climate than interior. Found in the upper regions of the west coast in the upper middle latitudes. The storms travelling west across the ocean on the westerlies bring most of the rainfall. Winters are usually foggy and cloudy and rainy. Summers can be warm and sunny. Northwestern Europe &Oregon. Usually supports coniferous forests-temperate forests.Humid continental- found along the east coast and the interior of upper middle latitude continents. Four seasons. Polar front bring cold air which hits warm air from the south creating storms.
6 High-Latitude and Highland Climates Subarctic—Long, cold winters and short, warm summers; vast evergreen forestsTundra—Long winters, with permafrost; low shrubs, lichens, mosses, fernsIce Cap—Polar climates; few land plants or animalsHighland—Varies by elevation, with low elevations relatively mild & high elevations similar to ice capSubarctic – 50 degrees north of the equator (Canada) long cold winters, temperatures are well below freezing for half the year. Summers are short and warm. Boreal forest-large forest of coniferous treesTundra high latitude coastal areas that is cold most of the time except for short summers when thing start to thaw some. The ground stays frozen in a perma frost which causes ground not to absorb water causing swamps and bogs. Low shrubs grow here because the ground does not thaw and the harsh winds.Ice cap-polar regions, huge flat masses of ice and snow. Antarctica and Greenland.Highland climate – relates to mountains. The higher up you go the similar it get to the other cold climates. Example the top of Mt Everest is similar to the ice caps while only 7,000 ft up it might be like the subarctic in the summer. When you are above the tree line there are no trees. Temperature drops every 3 degrees every 1,000 feet