 Tangents, Arcs, and Chords

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Tangents, Arcs, and Chords
CHAPTER 9 Tangents, Arcs, and Chords

SECTION 9-1 Basic Terms

CIRCLE is the set of points in a plane at a given distance from a given point in that plane. The given point is the CENTER of the circle and the given distance is the RADIUS.

is a segment whose endpoints lie on a circle.
CHORD is a segment whose endpoints lie on a circle.

is a line that contains a chord.
SECANT is a line that contains a chord.

is a chord that contains the center of a circle.
DIAMETER is a chord that contains the center of a circle.

TANGENT is a line in the plane of a circle that intersects the circle in exactly one point, called the point of tangency.

SPHERE is the set of all points in space at a distance r (radius) from point O (center)

Are circles that have congruent radii
CONGRUENT CIRCLES Are circles that have congruent radii

Are spheres that have congruent radii
CONGRUENT SPHERES Are spheres that have congruent radii

Are circles that lie in the same plane and have the same center
CONCENTRIC CIRCLES Are circles that lie in the same plane and have the same center

Are spheres that have the same center.
CONCENTRIC SPHERES Are spheres that have the same center.

INSCRIBED in a CIRCLE Occurs when each vertex of a polygon lies on the circle and the circle is CIRCUMSCRIBED about the POLYGON

SECTION 9-2 Tangents

THEOREM 9 -1 If a line is tangent to a circle, then the line is perpendicular to the radius drawn to the point of tangency.

Tangents to a circle from a point are congruent
Corollary Tangents to a circle from a point are congruent

THEOREM 9 -2 If a line in the plane of a circle is perpendicular to the radius at its outer endpoint, then the line is tangent to the circle.

Occurs when each side of a polygon is tangent to a circle and the circle is INSCRIBED in the POLYGON

a line that is tangent to each of two coplanar circles
COMMON TANGENT a line that is tangent to each of two coplanar circles

COMMON Internal TANGENT
Intersects the segment joining the centers of the circles.

COMMON External TANGENT
Does not intersect the segment joining the centers of the circles.

TANGENT CIRCLES are coplanar circles that are tangent to the same line at the same point

Arcs and Central Angles
SECTION 9-3 Arcs and Central Angles

is an angle with its vertex at the center of the circle.
CENTRAL ANGLE is an angle with its vertex at the center of the circle.

is an unbroken part of a circle.
ARC is an unbroken part of a circle.

is the arc formed by two points on a circle
MINOR ARC is the arc formed by two points on a circle *The measure of a minor arc is the measure of its central angle

is the remaining arc formed by the remaining points on the circle
MAJOR ARC is the remaining arc formed by the remaining points on the circle * The measure is 360° minus the minor arc

is an arc formed from the endpoints of a circle’s diameter
SEMICIRCLE is an arc formed from the endpoints of a circle’s diameter * The measure is 180°

Arcs that have exactly one point in common.
ADJACENT ARCS Arcs that have exactly one point in common.

CONGRUENT ARCS Arcs in the same circle or in congruent circles that have equal measure.

POSTULATE 16 The measure of the arc formed by two adjacent arcs is the sum of the measures of these two arcs

THEOREM 9-3 In the same circle or in congruent circles, two minor arcs are congruent if and only if their central angles are congruent.

SECTION 9-4 Arcs and Chords

In the same circle or in congruent circles:
THEOREM 9-4 In the same circle or in congruent circles: Congruent arcs have congruent chords Congruent chords have congruent arcs

THEOREM 9-5 A diameter that is perpendicular to a chord bisects the chord and its arc

In the same circle or in congruent circles:
THEOREM 9-6 In the same circle or in congruent circles: Chords equally distant from the center (or centers) are congruent Congruent chords are equally distant from the center (or centers)

SECTION 9-5 Inscribed Angles

INSCRIBED ANGLE Is an angle whose vertex is on a circle and whose sides contain chords of the circle.

Is the intersection of the sides of an inscribed angle and the circle
INTERCEPTED ARC Is the intersection of the sides of an inscribed angle and the circle

THEOREM 9-7 The measure of an inscribed angle is equal to half the measure of its intercepted arc

COROLLARY 1 If two inscribed angles intercept the same arc, then the angles are congruent

An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.
COROLLARY 2 An angle inscribed in a semicircle is a right angle.

COROLLARY 3 If a quadrilateral is inscribed in a circle, then its opposite angles are supplementary

THEOREM 9-8 The measure of an angle formed by a chord and a tangent is equal to half the measure of the intercepted arc.

SECTION 9-6 Other Angles

THEOREM 9-9 the measure of an angle formed by two chords that intersect inside a circle is equal to half the sum of the measures of the intercepted arcs.

THEOREM 9-10 the measure of an angle formed by two secants, two tangents, or a secant and a tangent drawn from a point outside a circle is equal to half the difference of the measures of the intercepted arcs

Circles and Lengths of Segments
SECTION 9-7 Circles and Lengths of Segments

THEOREM 9-11 When two chords intersect inside a circle, the product of the segments of one chord equals the product of the segments of the other chord

THEOREM 9-12 When two secant segments are drawn to a circle from an external point, the product of one secant segment and its external segment equals the product of the other secant segment and its external segment.

THEOREM 9-13 When a secant and a tangent segment are drawn to a circle from an external point, the product of the secant segment and its external segment is equal to the square of the tangent segment

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