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Animal Survival Water and Waste.

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Presentation on theme: "Animal Survival Water and Waste."— Presentation transcript:

1 Animal Survival Water and Waste

2 G1: Identify the ways in which a mammal gains and loses water
Water Loss Urine (Urea in water) Faeces Sweat Breathing Water Gain Food Drink Chemical Reactions* *Respiration = how the body releases energy from food. Oxygen + Food  Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy

3 The kidneys make sure that the amount of water gain equals the amount of water loss
Water Balance Water In = Water Out

4 G2: State that the kidneys are the main organs for regulating the water content in a mammal.
This is called OSMOREGULATION water regulate/control G3: Identify the position and state the functions of the kidney, renal arteries, renal veins, ureter and bladder.

5 Name Function Kidney Filter blood. Remove excess water and urea Renal Arteries Supply blood to the kidneys Renal Vein Take filtered blood away from the kidneys Ureter Take urine (urea and water) from the kidneys to the bladder Bladder Stores urine until it is passed out of the body

6 G4: State that the kidneys work by filtration of blood and reabsorption of useful materials such as glucose. G5: State that urea is a waste product removed in the urine.

7 FILTRATION As blood flows through the kidneys, a lot of water and most of the substances dissolved in the plasma are filtered out. This includes urea, glucose, amino acids and salt.

8 RE-ABSORPTION Many of these substances are needed by the body, so are RE-ABSORBED back into the blood. Urea and just the right amount of water that the body needs to lose are NOT re-absorbed. They pass out of the kidneys, down to the bladder and are excreted in the urine

9 C1: Explain the process of urine production using a simple diagram of the nephron.

10 Kidney tubule Bowman’s capsule Capillaries Glomerulus Collecting Tube

11 Part of Nephron Function Glomerulus Kidney Tubule Collecting Duct
Blood is filtered and collects in the Bowman’s Capsule Kidney Tubule Useful substances are re-absorbed (eg, glucose, amino acids) and pass back into the capillaries. Collecting Duct Final re-absorption of water occurs here. The amount re-absorbed is controlled by ADH (anti-diuretic hormone).

12 Amino Acids  Glycogen + Urea
C2: State the source of urea in the body and describe how urea is transported to the kidneys. Urea is a poisonous nitrogenous (contains nitrogen) waste. It is made in the liver when surplus amino acids are broken down. Amino Acids  Glycogen + Urea Useful carbohydrate stored in the liver Urea passes into the bloodstream and is transported to the kidneys where it is removed from the blood.

13 New term …… diuretic Opposite terms
Don’t copy this!!!!!!! New term …… diuretic A diuretic is a substance which causes an increase in the production of urine. Opposite terms eg, clockwise/anti-clockwise social/anti-social anti-viral

14 Diuretic Anti-diuretic
A diuretic is a substance which causes an increase in the production of urine. Anti-diuretic An anti-diuretic will reduce the production of urine.

15 C3: Explain the role of ADH (anti-diuretic hormone) in the regulation of water balance
= decrease production of urine Anti-diuretic hormone is released by the pituitary gland (part of the brain). Body can either produce lots of ADH or a little ADH Lots of ADH = less urine

16 Scenario 1: Drank too much water
Drink too much Blood too dilute Releases little ADH Water conc. in blood normal Water conc. in blood normal Low volume of water reabsorbed by kidney Large volume dilute urine to bladder

17 Scenario 2: Body has lost too much water
sweating Blood too concentrated Releases lots ADH Water conc. in blood normal Water conc. in blood normal High volume of water reabsorbed by kidney Small volume concentrated urine to bladder

18 G6: Explain the implications of damage to the kidneys by accidents or disease
People can live with only one kidney, but if both kidneys become damaged, urea will build up and will eventually cause death if not treated. Treatment Dialysis (kidney machine) Kidney Transplant

19 C4: Describe the benefits and limitations of replacement and “artificial” kidneys.

20 C4: Describe the benefits and limitations of replacement and “artificial” kidneys.
1. Page 50 Biology Booklet 2. Complete pages 43-51 3. Textbook Read/Revise/Take Notes/Answer Questions 4. Last page of booklet – past paper questions/book

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