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Introduction to the Plant Kingdom

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to the Plant Kingdom"— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to the Plant Kingdom
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2 Aquatic to Terrestrial Life
Early Ancestors Aquatic to Terrestrial Life copyright cmassengale

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Aquatic Ancestor Closest living species to a possible land plant ancestor Group of green algae Called Charyophyceans Chara copyright cmassengale

4 Algae & Land Plant Similarities
Both contain chlorophylls a and b Have chloroplasts with stacks of thylakoids Store starch in plastids Cellulose in cell walls Go through Alternation of Generations life Cycle copyright cmassengale

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Aquatic Habitat Terrestrial Habitat copyright cmassengale

6 Living in Aquatic Environments
Plants surrounded by water so don’t dry out Sperm swims to egg Water supports plant Plants stay in upper surface near light Absorb nutrients from the H2O copyright cmassengale

7 Plant Adaptations to Land
Solutions: Roots absorb H2O & minerals Lignin & cellulose in cell walls Vascular Transport System Waxy cuticle & stomata with guard cells Pollen containing sperm Problems: Need minerals Gravity Increase in Height for Light Adaptations for Drier environment Reproduction copyright cmassengale

8 How Are Plants All Alike?
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9 Plant Characteristics
Multicellular Autotrophic (photosynthesis) Chlorophylls a and b in thylakoid membranes Surrounded by cell walls containing cellulose (polysaccharide) Store reserve food as amylose (starch) copyright cmassengale

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Plant Reproduction Alternation of generations life cycle Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage Haploid (1n) gametophyte stage Produce multicellular embryo protected inside multicellular haploid (gametophyte egg sac) tissue copyright cmassengale

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Plant Reproduction Diploid (2n) sporophyte stage produces haploid spores by meiosis Haploid spores undergo mitosis to produce gametophyte stage Gametophyte makes gametes (eggs and sperm) by meiosis Zygote (2n) produces the new sporophyte copyright cmassengale

12 Alternation of Generations
Gametophyte 2n Sporophyte 2n gametophyte 1n pollen 2n seed with plant embryo Ovary with 1n ovules (eggs) Sporophyte copyright cmassengale

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Plant Divisions copyright cmassengale

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Taxonomy Plants are divided into two groups Based on the presence or absence of an internal transport system for water and dissolved materials Called Vascular System Vascular Bundles copyright cmassengale

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Vascular System Xylem tissue carries water and minerals upward from the roots Phloem tissue carries sugars made by photosynthesis from the leaves to where they will be stored or used Sap is the fluid carried inside the xylem or phloem copyright cmassengale

16 Nonvascular Plants Do not have vascular tissue for support or conduction of materials Called Bryophytes Require a constantly moist environment Sporophyte stage Gametophyte Stage Moss Gametophytes & Sporophytes copyright cmassengale

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Nonvascular Plants Plants can’t grow as tall Cells must be in direct contact with moisture Materials move by diffusion cell-to-cell Sperm must swim to egg through water droplets copyright cmassengale

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Nonvascular Plants Includes mosses (Bryophyta), liverworts (Hepatophyta), and hornworts (Antherophyta) Liverworts Hornworts copyright cmassengale

19 Main Parts of Vascular Plants
Shoots -Found above ground -Have leaves attached - Photosynthetic part of plant Roots -Found below ground -Absorb water & minerals -Anchor the plant copyright cmassengale

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Vascular Plants Also called Tracheophytes Subdivided into two groups -- Seedless vascular plants and Seed-bearing vascular plants Club Moss copyright cmassengale

21 Seedless Vascular Plants
Includes club moss (Lycophyta), horsetails (Sphenophyta), whisk ferns (Psilophyta), and ferns (Pterophyta) Whisk ferns copyright cmassengale Horsetails

22 Seed-Producing Vascular Plants
Includes two groups – Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Gymnosperms have naked seeds in cones Angiosperms have flowers that produce seeds to attract pollinators and produce seeds copyright cmassengale

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Gymnosperms Coniferophyta are known as conifers Includes pine, cedar, spruce, and fir Cycadophyta – cycads Ginkgophyta - ginkgo Cycad Ginkgo copyright cmassengale

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Gymnosperms Contains the oldest living plant – Bristle cone pine Contains the tallest living plant – Sequoia or redwood copyright cmassengale

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Angiosperms Flowering plants Seeds are formed when an egg or ovule is fertilized by pollen in the ovary Ovary is within a flower Flower contains the male (stamen) and/or female (ovaries) parts of the plant Fruits are frequently produced from these ripened ovaries (help disperse seeds) copyright cmassengale

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Angiosperms Division Anthophyta Subdivided into two groups – Monocots and Dicots Monocots have a single seed cotyledon Dicots have two seed cotyledons copyright cmassengale

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Monocots Parallel venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 3 Vascular tissue scattered in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

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Dicots Net venation in leaves Flower parts in multiples of 4 or 5 Vascular tissue in rings in cross section of stem copyright cmassengale

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Plant Uses copyright cmassengale

30 Why We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce oxygen for the atmosphere Produce lumber for building Provide homes and food for many organisms Prevent erosion Used for food copyright cmassengale

31 More Reasons We Can’t do Without Plants!
Produce wood pulp for paper products Source of many medicines Ornamental and shade for yards Fibers such as cotton for fabric Dyes copyright cmassengale

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