What is Hypertext? The term "hypertext" was coined by Ted Nelson, who defined it in his self-published Literary Machines as "non-sequential writing" (0/2). Project Xanadu –Deep Interconnection with intercomparison and re-use
Project Xanadu –Since 1960, we have fought for a world of deep electronic documents-- with side-by-side intercomparison and frictionless re-use of copyrighted material. –We have an exact and simple structure. Our model handles automatic version management and rights management through deep connection. (Explained on succeeding pages.) –Today's popular software simulates paper. The World Wide Web (another imitation of paper) trivializes our original hypertext model with one-way ever-breaking links and no management of version or contents.
Hypertext definition 1 Hypertext is the presentation of information as a linked network of nodes which readers are free to navigate in a non-linear fashion. It allows for multiple authors, a blurring of the author and reader functions, extended works with diffuse boundaries, and multiple reading paths.
Hypertext definition 2 Janet Fiderio, in her overview "A Grand Vision," writes –“Hypertext, at its most basic level, is a DBMS that lets you connect screens of information using associative links. At its most sophisticated level, hypertext is a software environment for collaborative work, communication, and knowledge acquisition. Hypertext products mimic the brain's ability to store and retrieve information by referential links for quick and intuitive access”.
What is Hypertext? - the easy way Traditional Text is linear beginning & end Hypertext is non-linear Hypertext is navigated via ‘links’ or ‘hyperlinks’ Information is ‘interconnected’
What is Hypermedia? Computer Mediated Random Accessable User Interactive Digital not analogue A Hybrid Medium
Art and Design Film Television Telecommunications Computer Science
5 Steps to Hypermedia 19th Century - Telegraph, Telephone, Cinematography 1930’s - Television 1940’s - Digital Computer 1960/70’s - Electronic Typesetting 1960/70’s - Computer Networks
Rapid www development 1991 - WWW implemented: URL’s, HTTP, HTML 1993 - Mosaic 1994 - Netscape 1996 - Internet Explorer 1998 - HTML 4.0 - Stylesheets
3 levels of Interactivity Navigational Functional Adaptive
Navigational Most basic form of interactivity Process of navigating through ‘information space’ Menu’s and commands Hypertext links Embedded links Add multimedia information space becomes multi-sensory but ‘passive’
Functional Interactivity Higher level of interactivity User interaction with the system to accomplish a goal or set of goals Example: online order or game Feedback loop strong and not passive System to User User to System
Adaptive Interactivity Highest level of Interactivity Boundary between Functional & Adaptive is blurred BUT key difference is - ‘creative user/system control’ User and or System adapts the application or information space to fit specific needs or requirements. Who is the author? Who is the reader?
Four Advantages to Interactivity Addresses audience priorities Allows User Defined Pacing Builds Audience Associations Integrates Information
1. Audience Priorities Every user approaches an experience with something in mind….. With Multimedia/Hypermedia this can be very specific –Games - Strategy? Excitement? –WWW - Information? Interaction?
2. User-Defined Pacing The user calls the shots…. –Spend as much or as little time as you like
3. Build Associations People think associatively People may need help to make the connections… Build the bridges
4. Integrate Information... WWW allows us to dynamically assemble rich stores of information –Lecture schedules and descriptions –Learning Outcomes –Notes –Assignments –Presentations –Links to other information resources….
Why is Interactivity important? People learn by doing –Learning without teachers? Ownership –In your own time - pro-activity Control –At your own speed
Interactivity on the WWW Search Engines, Chat Rooms, Mail Groups, UseNet Newsgroups, VRML 3D, Flash and Shockwave enabled.
‘Embedded’ Interactivity... Page links Sound Video Image Maps