2 What types of land are used to provide resources? FarmlandRangelandForest landNational & state parksWilderness
3 Farmlands Land used to grow crops & fruit. 100 hectares of prime farmland are found in U.S.1 hectare is a little less than 2 football fields.This land is threatened by urban development.Farmland Protection Program- helps state, county, & local governments protect farmlandWhat will happen if we lose farmland to development?Less foodFood becomes more expensive
4 Rangelands Land used to support non-food crops Ex: grasslands, shrublands, desertsLand is used for grazing livestock & wildlifeEx: cows, sheep, goatsThreats:Overgrazing- allowing more animals to graze than the range can support.Leads to desertification- land becomes more like a desert.If fewer plants then no roots to hold soil- leads to erosion.
5 Rangelands (continued) Management:Most rangeland is public land and is managed by federal government.Government leases land to ranchers.Land is fenced & herds must be rotated to prevent overgrazing and give plants a chance to recover.Herd size may also be limited.
6 Forest Lands Harvesting Trees Used for: PaperLumberFurnitureFire wood as fuel sourceMaple syrupTurpentineEcosystem services provided by trees:Remove CO2 from air.Add O2 to the airTemperature regulation
7 Forest Lands 3 types of forest lands: 2 methods to harvest trees: Virgin forest- never been cutNative forest- trees planted & managedTree farms- planted in rows & harvested like crops2 methods to harvest trees:Clear cutting- remove all trees from an area of landCauses erosion & loss of wildlife habitatSelective cutting- cutting only middle-aged or mature trees.More expensive but less destructive
8 Forest Lands Deforestation Clearing trees without replacing them. Reduces wildlife habitatsCauses soil erosion when tree roots removed from soilEspecially bad in rainforest where soil is thin and high level of rainfall washes soil away.Positive feedback loop:Farmers slash & burn forest.Loss of tree roots and heavy rain causes soil erosionFarmers slash & burn some more trees.Cycle continues.
9 Forest Lands Reforestation When farms abandoned, area of land will regenerate forests through secondary succession.Some reforestation projects required when trees harvested from public land.
10 Parks & Preserves1870’s first national park created- Yellowstone National Park.50 national parks across the US- most are out westPublic lands owned by the government can be leased to private companies and used forLoggingMiningRanchingGovernment can also maintain these public lands asWildlife refugesHunting & fishing areasFirst picture is waterfall in Yellowstone. Second picture is hot spring in Yellowstone. Colors in the hot spring from bacteria.Most national parks are out west because the east was already urbanized before 1870s when the idea to conserve land was first proposed.
11 Wilderness Areas Land is protected from ALL exploitations. Cannot build roads, buildings, or use motorized equipment in these areasUsed for hiking, fishing, camping, non-motorized boating (canoe or kayak)
12 Benefits of Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas Protecting ecosystems will preserve species & prevent extinctionsProvide recreational areas for people to relieve stressOutdoor classrooms & research facilities where we can learn more about natural world
13 Threats to Parks/Preserves/Wilderness Areas When there are too many visitors at one time…Leave litter behindCause traffic jams (air pollution)Trample plant lifeClimate change can alter the plant life & hibernation cycles of animalsInvasive species crowd out native wildlife/plantsMeasures taken to protect these areas include:Limiting # of visitorsClosing areas during animal mating seasonsVolunteer programs to help clean & maintain parks
14 You should be able to…Explain what reforestation is and why it is important.List & explain two methods of managing rangelands sustainably.Describe the function of parks & wilderness areas.Describe the environmental effects of deforestation.Explain the benefits of preserving farmland.