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Arteries, Veins and Capillaries

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1 Arteries, Veins and Capillaries
Chapter 15

2 The Cardiorespiratory System
Includes function of the heart, blood vessels, circulation, and gas exchange, between the blood and atmosphere. Heart pumps blood through the body through pathways (arteries, veins, and capillaries) Blood is enriched with oxygen when it passes through the lungs As oxygen enters the bloodstream, carbon dioxide leaves it (respiration)

3 The Circulatory System
Course taken by blood through the arteries, capillaries, and veins & back to heart Uses blood to transport dissolved materials throughout body Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, waste Picks up waste products of cell metabolism & takes to lungs and kidneys (to be expelled from body)

4 Blood Only tissue that flows throughout body
Carries oxygen & nutrients to all parts of body and transports waste products back to lungs, kidneys, and liver for disposal Essential part of immune system Crucial for fluid and temperature balance Hydraulic fluid for certain functions Highway for hormonal messages Composed of plasma and billions of cells

5 Plasma The yellowish, liquid part of blood
River in which blood cells travel Makes up 55% of total volume Carries blood cells + Nutrients (sugars, amino acids, fats, salts, minerals) Waste products (CO2, lactic acid, urea) Antibodies Clotting proteins (called clotting factors) Chemical messengers (hormones) Proteins that help maintain body’s fluid balance

6 Blood—RBCs & Hemoglobin
Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) Highly specialized cells that have been “stripped” of everything, including nucleus Major job: transporting oxygen Percentage of RBCs in total blood volume called hematocrit Hemoglobin Special red-colored molecule that fills RBCs Picks up oxygen in areas where O2 is abundant and releases O2 in tissues where O2 concentration lowest

7 Blood—White Blood Cells
5 distinct kinds Neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, eosinophils, basophils Able to change according to need and situation in body Can leave blood stream , sliding out through vessel walls & attacking invaders at site of infections

8 Blood Vessels Hollow tubes running throughout the body 5 types
Arteries Arterioles Veins Venules Capillaries Provide 2 measurements: Pulse Blood pressure

9 Arteries Blood vessels that carry blood from the heart to organs & cells Muscular walls that allow them to dilate or constrict Arterioles: very small arteries Largest artery=aorta Runs from chest into abdomen Receives blood directly from left ventricle

10 Veins Largest vein=superior & inferior vena cava
Bring blood from upper and lower body into right atrium Venules: smallest veins

11 Capillaries Tiny, microscopic blood vessels that connect arteries to veins Responsible for transferring oxygen and nutrients to cells Wall so thin that O2 passes from arterial blood through them into cells in organs/tissues Waste products (CO2) pass into capillaries to be carried back by veins to heart/lungs

12 Activity Diagram and color Capillaries Vocabulary

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