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Patterns and Processes of World Tourism

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1 Patterns and Processes of World Tourism

2 Patterns and Processes of World Tourism
Learning objectives : Discuss factors influencing tourism Describe the historical development of travel and tourism Understand the character of international tourism Identify the different impacts of tourism

3 Patterns and Processes of World Tourism
In 1979, famed futurist Herman Kahn predicted that tourism would be the world’s largest industry by the year 2000 1986 – exceeded 2 trillion dollars, 64.3 million jobs 1999 – exceeded 3.6 trillion dollars, employment 200 million

4 Patterns and Processes of World Tourism
Defining tourism 1) Movement of people between two or more places (origin and destination) 2) Length of time of movement (temporary) 3) Purpose

5 Patterns and Processes of World Tourism
UN’s divided visitors into two categories :- Tourists are temporary visitors Excursionists staying less twenty-four hours in the country visited

6 Factors influencing tourism
Leisure Time Affluence Mobility

7 Historical development of travel and tourism
Ancient times People did not travel in ancient times 3 elements :- a) money b) ability to communicate c) transportation Transportation is the most important among the three factors

8 Historical development of travel and tourism
Roman era Height of early tourism Factors emerged a) common coinage b) language c) legal system

9 Early International Tourism
Growth of a middle class Achievements in art and thought of the Renaissance Forerunner of modern tourism – The Grand Tour

10 Early International Tourism
Late in the 1800s and early 1900s, seaside and mountain resorts became fashionable places for the wealthy Coastal areas in France and Britain became havens for the wealthy in terms of spa

11 Current International Patterns of Tourism
Increased steadily since the end of WWII 1960s, number of world tourist arrivals more than doubled 1970 – 183 million, 2000 – 700 million Growth in number of arrivals has been greatest in the low-income nations of the world leading to better economy, higher standard of living etc. China

12 Character of international tourism
Interaction between places (tourism) function of time and cost Distance increases lead to tourism interaction between places decreases Costs increase tourism interaction decreases

13 Character of international tourism
Destination regions :- Primary b) Secondary

14 Character of international tourism
Primary Destination (2-35 days) :- Friends and Family e.g. stay longer and visit frequently Exotic e.g. perception of the potential visitor based on historical, environment, culture, mega events and sun-sea-sand varies from person to person

15 Character of international tourism
Secondary Destination (1 – 10 days) Shadow Effect e.g. near other major destinations b) Grand Tour e.g. Usually shorter in length compared to sixteenth to nineteenth century Europe, Eurail pass leads to multiple country visits in Europe

16 Character of international tourism
c) Path Destinations e.g. located between popular destinations on transportation paths, attract tourists that are travelling from an origin to a destination

17 Character of international tourism
d) Transit Destinations :- revolves around point of change, type of carrier, major change in route e.g. promoting Singapore as a SE Asia hub

18 Travel Patterns Proximity
Presence or absence of international connectivity, including business, political, military and other ties Type and degree of service offered General attractiveness Cost of travelling

19 Influence of Tourism Economic Social and cultural Environmental

20 Economic Impact Providing foreign exchange and tax revenues needed by many nations Raise standard of living of their citizens Help a country’s balance of payments

21 Economic Impact Tourism income benefits countries in many ways :-
Money flows into the economy Generated for the governments e.g. taxes Creates employment e.g. Tourism & Hospitality industry

22 Economic Impact Negative economic impacts :- Seasonal
Inflation e.g. too many Singaporeans visiting JB, Malaysia Demand for “hard currency” is so high

23 Social and Cultural impact
Development of cultural understanding Traditional folk costumes and customs are reestablished to benefit tourists Return of immigrants or their descendants that bring them closer to ancestral homeland Patterns of food consumption

24 Social and Cultural impact
Responsibilities of a good visitor :- Never compared your home country with the host country Make efforts to understand its local culture Appreciate what the local culture can offer Be patient and tolerance

25 Environmental impact Tourists attracted to scenic harbors, waterfalls, large lakes surrounded by high mountains or volcanoes May threaten the natural beauty Increased visits may lead to damaging the environment e.g. Great Barrier Ensured effective plans to balance tourism and the environment

26 Environmental impact Preexisting forms characterize an area’s human and physical environment before being “discovered” as a major tourist destination area e.g. development of coastal resorts and cities Concerned with pollution of surrounding areas e.g. East Coast Park, Singapore

27 Environmental impact Location and development can be controlled carefully by the local and federal governments Carrying capacity :- level of tourism development that can occur in the destination Ecotourism is environmentally responsible travel to natural areas that helps to preserve the area being visited

28 Environmental impact Includes :-
a) Pollution e.g. automobiles, taxis, buses, and aircraft b) Vegetation e.g. large number of visitors that overwhelm an area and physical abuse to the vegetation

29 Environmental impact c) Wildlife e.g. wildlife changes result from the killing of animals or birds and the disruption d) Natural Landscapes e.g. construction results in the encroachment of facilities or buildings

30 Summary Different impacts of tourism will occur whenever a country welcomes foreign and local tourists. Those who work in the industry will understand the various factors in influencing tourism better. We will understand how travel and tourism evolves over time during western civilization

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