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MIP Extensions: FMIP & HMIP

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Presentation on theme: "MIP Extensions: FMIP & HMIP"— Presentation transcript:

1 MIP Extensions: FMIP & HMIP
Mobile IP Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) MIP Extensions: FMIP & HMIP Proxy MIP (PMIP)

2 Mobile IP and its Variants
Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4) MIPv4 Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4) Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4) Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) MIPv6 Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6) Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) CNP

3 IETF RFCs MIP MIPv4: RFC 3344 (2002) MIPv6: RFC 3775 (2004)
FMIP (Fast Handover for MIP FMIPv6: RFC 4068 (2005) Fast Handovers for Mobile IPv6 FMIPv4: RFC 4881 (2007) Low-Latency Handoffs in Mobile IPv4 HMIP (Hierarchical MIP) HMIPv6: RFC 4140 (2005) Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 HMIPv4: RFC 4857 (2007) Mobile IPv4 Regional Registration CNP

4 MIPv4: Overview MIPv4 Nodes MN (Mobile Node): Host
CN (Correspondent Node): Host HA (Home Agent): Router FA (Foreign Agent): Router MIPv4 Address HoA (Home Address): MN CoA (Care-of-Address): FA CNP

5 Home Address (HoA) and Care-of Address (CoA)

6 The home address is permanent;
Note: The home address is permanent; the care-of address changes as the mobile host moves from one network to another. CNP

7 MIPv4 Agents Home Agent (HA) & Foreign Agent (FA) CNP

8 Protocols Operation Agent Discovery Registration Data Transfer CNP

9 MIPv4: Control Operations
Agent Discovery MN  FA (CoA) ICMP Agent Solicitation & Advertisement Registration to HA (via FA) MN  FA  HA Over UDP (destination port 434) Data Tunneling CN => HA (HoA) => FA (CoA) => MN IP-in-IP Tunneling, .. CNP

10 MIPv4: Control & Data Flows

11 Agent advertisement MIP does not use a new packet type for agent advertisement; it uses the router advertisement packet of ICMP, and appends an agent advertisement message. CNP

12 Mobile IP does not use a new packet type for agent solicitation;
it uses the router solicitation packet of ICMP. CNP

13 Registration request and reply

14 Note: A registration request or reply is sent
by UDP using the well-known port 434. CNP

15 Registration request format

16 Registration reply format

17 Data transfer CNP

18 The movement of the mobile host the rest of the Internet.
Key Objective of MIP The movement of the mobile host is transparent to the rest of the Internet. CNP

19 Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) MIPv6 = MIPv4 + IPv6 Major Differences from MIPv4
FA in MN No FA for MIPv6 CoA: IP address of MN By DHCPv6 or IPv6 Stateless Auto-Configuration Route Optimization To solve the “Triangular Routing” Problem Provided by default MN  CN CNP

20 MIP: Triangular Routing Problem

21 MIPv6: Route Optimization

22 MIPv6: Binding Update Binding Update to HA
Using IPSEC: MN and HA have a security association AH (Authentication Header) ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload) Binding Update to CN Return Routability (RR) procedure For Security Binding Update (BU) procedure Route Optimization CNP

23 MIPv6: Binding Update CNP

24 MIPv6: RR (Return Routability)

25 MIPv6: Changes to IPv6 New IPv6 Protocol (Header)
Mobility Header: a new IPv6 extension header To carry MIPv6 Binding Update messages How is in the MIPv4 ? New Option in Destination Option Header Home Address Option New Type in Routing Header Type 2 Routing Header New ICMP Messages ICMP HA Address Discovery Request/Reply ICMP Mobile Prefix Solicitation/ Advertisement CNP

26 MIPv6: IPv6 Header CNP

27 MIPv6: Mobility Header A New Extension Header of IPv6
Messages for Return Routability Home Test Init Message Care-of Test Init Message Home Test Message Care-of Test Message Messages for Binding Update Binding Update Message Binding Acknowledgement Message Binding Error Message Binding Refresh Request Message CNP

28 MIP Extensions Mobile IPv4 (MIPv4)
Low-Latency Handover for MIPv4 (FMIPv4) Regional Registration for MIPv4 (HMIPv4) Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) Fast Handover for MIPv6 (FMIPv6) Hierarchical MIPv6 (HMIPv6) CNP

29 FMIPv6: Fast Handover for MIPv6
CN PAR NAR signaling signaling MN CNP

30 FMIPv6: Operations Handover Initiation L2 Triggers, RtSolPr, PrRtAdv
Between MN and AR Tunnel Establishment HI (Handover Initiate) and HACK Between PAR and NAR Packet Forwarding PAR => NAR (data buffering at NAR) FBU, FBack NAR => MN: FNA (Fast NA) CNP

31 FMIPv6: Operational Flows

32 HMIPv6: Overview Motivations Localized (Regional) Mobility Management
Hierarchical MIP: MN  HA HMIP: MN  MAP  HA MAP: Mobility Anchor Point IP Address (CoA) RCoA (Regional CoA): in the MAP region LCoA (On-Link CoA): in the AR region CNP

33 HMIPv6: Architecture HA CN MAP AR2 AR1 MN RCoA Movement LCoA_2 LCoA_1

34 HMIPv6: Operations MN When entering an AR region in the MAP domain,
it gets LCoA (AR region) and RCoA (MAP region) RCoA does not change in the MAP domain Local Binding Update (LBU) to MAP Bind LCoA & RCoA to MAP MAP (Acting as a local HA) Only the RCoA need to be registered with CN/HA Relay all packets between MN and HA/CN CNP

35 HMIPv6: MAP Tunnel (MAP  MN)
HA CN MAP AR2 AR1 MN Outer header Inner header LCoA MAP RCoA CN Home Addr CNP

36 MIP in Real World: 3GPP2 (CDMA)

37 MIP in 3GPP2 CNP

38 “Network-based” Localized Mobility Management
Proxy MIPv6 (PMIPv6) “Network-based” Localized Mobility Management

39 Why Network-based? Host-based MIPv4/v6 has not been yet deployed that much. Why host-based MIP is not deployed yet? Too heavy specification for a small terminal RFC 3344 (MIPv4): 99 pages RFC 3775 (MIPv6): 165 pages Battery problem Waste of air resource No Stable MIPv4/v6 stack executed in Microsoft Windows OS CNP

40 PMIPv6 IETF NETLMM WG Internet Draft “Proxy Mobile IPv6,”
draft-ietf-netlmm-proxymip6-00.txt (2007) GOAL This protocol is for providing mobility support to any IPv6 host within a restricted and topologically localized portion of the network and without requiring the host to participate in any mobility related signaling. CNP

41 Network-based Mobility
Technical Background Host-based vs. Network-based Mobility HA HA Route Update Route Update AR AR Movement Movement Network-based Mobility Host-based Mobility CNP

42 Proxy MIPv6 Overview LMA MAG1 MAG2
LMA: Localized Mobility Agent MAG: Mobile Access Gateway IP Tunnel A IPinIP tunnel LMA and MAG. LMA Home Network MN’s Home Network (Topological Anchor Point) MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CAFE:1:/64 MAG1 Host A LMA Address (LMAA) That will be the tunnel entry-point. LMM (Localized Mobility Management) Domain MAG2 MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CAFE:2:/64 Proxy Binding Update (PBU) Control message sent out by MAG to LMA to register its correct location Host B MN Home Address (MN-HoA) MN continues to use it as long as it roams within a same domain Proxy Care of Address (Proxy-CoA) The address of MAG. That will be the tunnel end-point. CNP

43 Proxy MIPv6 Overview No host stack change for IP mobility
Avoiding tunneling overhead over the air Re-use of Mobile IPv6 PMIPv6 is based on Mobile IPv6 [RFC3775] Only supports Per-MN-Prefix model Unique home network prefix assigned for each MN. The prefix follows the MN. CNP

44 Proxy MIPv6 Overview Overall Procedures
MN moves and attaches to an access router After authentication, MAG (access router) identifies MN MAG obtains MN’s profile containing the Home Address ..etc MAG sends the Proxy Binding Update to LMA on behalf of MN MAG receives the Proxy Binding Ack. from LMA MAG sends Router Advertisements containing MN’s home network prefix Stateless Case: MN will still configure (or maintain) the same as its home address. Stateful Case: the network will ensure that it always gets its home address. CNP

45 Proxy MIPv6 Overview CNP Tunnel Setup
In case that profile store does not have MN Home Prefix MAG emulates the MN’s home link Tunnel Setup This can be omitted when stateless configuration is used. CNP

46 Proxy MIPv6 Proxy Registration
LMA needs to understand the Proxy Registration. Proxy Binding Update Proxy Binding Acknowledgement CNP

47 Proxy MIPv6 Tunnel Management
LMA-MAG tunnel is a shared tunnel among many MNs. 1:1 relation  m:1 relation One tunnel is associated to multiple MNs’ Binding Caches. Life-time of a tunnel should not be dependent on the life time of any single BCE. LMA’s Prefix-based Routing LMA will add prefix routes to MN’s home network prefix over the tunnel. CNP

48 Proxy MIPv6 MAG Operation It emulates the home link for each MN.
After the access authentication, MAG will obtain MN’s profile which contains: MN’s home address MN’s home network prefix LMA address ..etc. It establishes a IPv6/IPv6 tunnel with the LMA. All the packets from MN are reverse tunneled to its LMA All the packets from the tunnel are routed to MN. Router Advertisement should be UNICASTed to an MN It will contain MN’s Home Network Prefix (MN-HNP) CNP

49 Proxy MIPv6 MN Operation
Any MN is just a IPv6 host with its protocol operation consistent with the base IPv6 specification. All aspects of Neighbor Discovery Protocol will not change. When MN attaches to a new AR, it receives a Router Advertisement message from the AR with its home prefix. Throughout the PMIP domain, MN using DHCP procedure or in stateless address configuration mode, will obtain the same home address. CNP

50 Proxy MIPv6 Data Transport LMA-MAG Tunneling/Reverse Tunneling MN MAG
CN MN sends a packet to CN MAG forwards to LMA LMA sends to CN CN sends packet to MN LMA forwards to MAG MAG sends to MN IPv6 header (src=MAG_ADDR, dst=LMA_ADDR) IPv6 header (src=MN_ADDR, dst=CN_ADDR) Payload IPv6 header (src=LMA_ADDR, dst=MAG_ADDR) IPv6 header (src=CN_ADDR, dst=MN_ADDR) Paylaod CNP

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