DISJUNCTS STYLE DISJUNCTS Comment the style, form, conditions of speaking CONTENT/ ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS (comment the truth value of an utterance) CERTAINTYEVALUATION
DISJUNCTS: more info Disjuncts are typically PPs and CLAUSES. STYLE DISJUNCTS convey either: – Speaker’s assertion of truth (truthfully), or – Speaker’s indication of generalization (broadly). ATTITUDINAL DISJUNCTS comment on: – TRUTH VALUE OF THE SENTENCE (CERTAINTY) General: certainly General + perception: obviously General + comment on reality of content: really – CONTENT OF COMMUNICATION (EVALUATION) General: understandably General + comment on clause subject: wisely (similar to subjuncts)
PAGE 131 – EXERCISE 7 ATTITUDINAL It is obvious that there has been a mistake. That there has been a mistake is obvious.
Page 131 – exercise 7 (b, c) ATTITUDINAL It was foolish of me to forget to ask her name. That I forgot to ask her name was foolish of me. ATTITUDINAL It was understandable that she was very upset. That she was very upset was understandable.
Page 131 – exercise 7 (d, e) ATTITUDINAL We were lucky to manage to find our way back. ATTITUDINAL You were quite right to phone/to have phoned the police first.
ADVERBIALS – peculiar behavior So, he somehow used to sort of be forever going to that place.
ADVERBIALS - position Compared to other syntactic constituents, the adverbial can be placed with relative freedom in several positions in a sentence. For example, the adjunct by then can be inserted in seven different positions in the following sentence: The book should have been returned to the library. By then, the book should have been returned to the library. The book by then should have been returned to the library. The book should by then have been returned to the library. The book should have by then been returned to the library. The book should have been by then returned to the library. The book should have been returned by then to the library. The book should have been returned to the library by then. INITIAL MEDIAL FINAL INITIALMEDIALFINAL ↓ The book↓ should ↓ have ↓ been↓ returned↓ to the library ↓.
INITIAL POSITION INITIAL POSITION: before the subject: – By then, the book should have been returned to the library. – Sometimes we go hiking at weekends. – Last year we organized a huge party for her birthday. – Today we are going to talk about adverbials.
MEDIAL POSITION MEDIAL POSITION: in or around the VP. Depending on the complexity of the VP, there may be several available medial positions: M1: after the subject, before the first auxiliary (no modal) or modal, before the lexical verb (in a simple VP) e.g. This HARDLY is my business. I SIMPLY do not understand you. M2: after BE as a lexical verb (in a simple VP), between two auxiliaries (if there are only two), between the auxiliary (the only one) and the lexical verb e.g. They have JUST been arrested. She is STILL your friend. M3: between the second and the third auxiliary e.g. The book should have BY THEN been returned to the library. M4: between the third auxiliary and the lexical verb e.g. The book should have been BY THEN returned to the library.
FINAL POSITION FINAL POSITION: after the lexical verb and other obligatory elements. F1: immediately after the lexical verb or after an obligatory complement e.g. I paid immediately for the book. I haven’t finished my report yet. F2: after a non-obligatory element or, simply, at the end of the sentence e.g. I paid for the book immediately.
EXERCISE 3: DO IT AT HOME IN THE MID-TERM EXAM AND FINAL EXAM YOU DO NOT NEED TO DISTINGUISH BETWEEN DIFFERENT M AND F POSITIONS
Page 129 – exercise 3 (a-d) I, M2, F1 M1, M2 F1 I, M1, F2
Page 129 – exercise 3 (e-i) M1, M2, F1 I, M1, F1 I (+inversion), M2 I, M1, F1 I, F1, F2
Page 129 – exercise 3 (j-m) M2, F1, M1 (clause) I, M1, F2 I, F1/F2 I, M1, M2
FIRST, A THEORETICAL REVIEW… SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION OF ADJUNCTS.
SEMANTIC TYPES OF ADJUNCTS Adjuncts Process Space/ Place Time Contingency Focusing Degree/ Intensifier Modality Respect/ Viewpoint Subjuncts
1. ADJUNCTS – PROCESS They favor the FINAL position Some can take the MEDIAL position Co-occurrence possible: She was accidentally struck with a racket by her partner.
2. ADJUNCTS – SPACE / PLACE Co-occurrence is possible. Relative order is fixed: distance + position: He swam a mile in the open sea. direction + position: He fell into the water near that rock. distance + direction: She walked a few steps towards him. two of the same subtype: position smaller/more specific + position bigger/less specific Many people eat in restaurants in London. goal + source or source + goal (depending on information structure): We flew from Cairo to Istanbul. We flew to Istanbul from Cairo. Only adverbials of same meaning can be coordinated: I drove down Gower Street and into University College /*several miles.
3. ADJUNCTS – TIME They typically favor the FINAL position. However, they can often take the INITIAL position: In 1982, the economy started to recover. For many years, no one wanted to buy the house. Some, especially short adjuncts (such as: always, often, just, recently, already) take the MEDIAL position: She often arrives late. You could then take a train to London.
4. ADJUNCTS – CONTINGENCY Mostly occur in the INITIAL and FINAL positions. When they co-occur in the FINAL position, the order is: 1. RESPECT – 2. PROCESS – 3. SPACE – 4. TIME – 5. CONTINGENCY Many people died [in Africa] [in the 20 th century] [from malnutrition]. IMPORTANT NOTE: CAUSE vs. REASON CAUSE (no subject’s control): She died of cancer. REASON (subject’s control): Working hard, she got promoted.
5. ADJUNCTS – FOCUSING They don’t favor any position in particular. The general rule for their position is that they are placed before the focused element: She had also questioned only her patients only the previous week also. If the whole predication is focused, they take medial position: She had only questioned her patients the previous week. HOWEVER, not all focusing expressions are really adjuncts: He only wants to help. (ADJUNCT) Only he wants to help. (MODIFIER OF NP)
Page 129 – exercise 4 (k-n) k) She is advising me on health issues. l) She walked a few steps towards him in the dark. m) Each month she visits them three times. n) They are probably going to ask for help. ADJUNCT OF RESPECT: (predication adjunct) PLACE/SPACE:goal SPACE/PLACEposition PLACE/SPACE:distance TIME:frequency TIME:frequency MODALITY ADJUNCT:approximation
PAGE 131 – exercise 8 disjunct (style disj.), M adjunct, (contingency – cause/reason), I
Page 131 – exercise 8 (c, d, e, f) adjunct (space/place - goal), F adjunct (process - means), F adjunct (process - manner), F adjunct (contingency - concession), I adjunct (degree/intensifier – amplifier - booster), F
Page 131 – exercise 8 (g, h, i, j) conjunct (summative), I adjunct (modality - approximation), M adjunct (viewpoint), I adjunct (time - frequency), M adjunct (time - frequency), F
Page 131 – exercise 8 (k, l, m, n) adjunct (subjunct – general/volitional), I adjunct (focusing - limiter), M adjunct (space/place - goal), F conjunct (transitional), I adjunct (contingency – cause/reason), I adjunct (degree/intensifier - downtoner), M disjunct (style), Iadjunct (process - manner), F adjunct (contingency - result), F