Presentation on theme: "INDUSTRIAL SPECIALTIES"— Presentation transcript:
1 INDUSTRIAL SPECIALTIES Petroleum Specialties represent a group of products which find wide application in the various processing industries. These products are primarily used in processing for manufacture of high quality finished goods. In most cases the petroleum specialties become part of the finished articles.They impart desirable properties to raw material to facilitate their processing into finished goods.They assist in the processing operations of the manufactured articles.They improve quality and serviceability of the materials being processed.They generally form part of the manufactured articles imparting them desired properties.They enhance the sales appeal of the finished articles.
2 SPECIALTY PRODUCT SERVICE PROGRAMME Study of processesRecommendation of most suitable productsAdvise on correct application practicesFollow up on performance of the productsSuggestions for improving performanceDevelopment of products for special applicationsTechnical service to the customers
3 INDUSTRIAL SPECIALTIES PRODUCT RANGE ALPROL SPECIAL PROCESS OILCONKOTE CHAIN CONVEYOR LUBRICANTDRAWMET METAL DRAWING OILELASTO RUBBER PROCESS OILGLAMOL GLASS MOULD OILHYTHERM HEAT TRANSFER OILKOOLKUT SOLUBLE CUTTING OILMETAQUENCH QUENCHING OILROLMET ROLLING OILRUSTOP RUST PREVENTIVE OILSPRAY OIL E AGRICULTURE OILTRIMOFIN STRAIGHT CUTTING OILTRIMOL STRAIGHT CUTTING OILUNIPRO TEXTILE OIL
4 CUTTING OILS CUTTING OPERATION Chip formation in metal cutting Heat sourcesBuilt up edgesCutting fluid paths
6 NECESSITY OF CUTTING FLUID Heat generation by external friction is reduced / minimised by placing a suitable lubrication film between the rubbing surfaces of work piece, tool and chipCooling / lubrication of contact surface between tool, work piece and chip results in improved finish , higher cutting speeds, depth of cut, reduced power consumption and reduced rate of tool wear.Prevents the welding/seizure taking place between tool and work piece resulting from high pressure and high temperatures.
7 FUNCTIONS OF CUTTING FLUID To lubricate the contacting surface of tool, work piece and chipTo cool work piece, tool and chipTo prevent local welding of metal particles to the tool ( minimise built up edges )To flush swarf from the cutting area
8 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CUTTING FLUIDS Cause no rusting and corrosion of machines, work piece and toolCause no discoloration or staining of the metalShould not smoke or foam in useHave no objectionable odourShould not decompose chemically in useShould not be harmful to the machine operator
9 SEVERITY OF METAL CUTTING OPERATION (In Descending Order)Internal Broaching (Greatest )Surface broaching, pipe threadingPlain Tapping, plain threadingGear Shaving, Cutting and RemovingDeep drillingMillingMulti spindle screw machiningAutomatic high speed machiningDrilling, shaping, single point turningSawing , grinding (Least)
10 TYPES OF CUTTING FLUIDS WATER MIX TYPE CUTTING FLUIDS - Available as following typeForming milky white emulsionsForming translucent emulsionsContaining EP additives and forming emulsionsSynthetic/Chemical type miscible with waterOIL TYPE OR STRAIGHT CUTTING FLUIDSStraight cutting oilsMineral oil / Fatty oil type of cutting fluidsTransparent sulfurized and/or chlorinated cutting oilsDark, heavy duty sulfurized cutting oils
11 WATER MIX CUTTING FLUIDS Koolkut 30 : General purpose emulsifiable oilKoolkut : Emulsifiable oil meeting IS 1115: 1986Koolkut EP 66 : Emulsifiable oil with EP additivesKoolkut 70 : Semi- synthetic oilKoolkut 80 : Premium Quality emulsifiable oilSynthkool 100 : Semi-synthetic oil
12 STRAIGHT CUTTING FLUIDS( NON STAININMG TYPE) Trimofin 15 : Low viscosity oil for honingTrimofin 16 : Medium viscosity oilTrimofin 18 : High lubricity oilTrimofin 20 : Low viscosity chlorinated oilTrimofin 21 : High viscosity chlorinated oilTrimofin 23 : Sulfurized oil meeting IS 3065 : 1985Trimofin 25 : Sulfurized oil high viscosityTrimofin 26 : Sulfurized and chlorinatedTrimofin 27 : Sulfurized and chlorinatedSTRAIGHT CUTTING FLUIDS ( STAINING TYPE)Trimofin 54 : Low viscosity sulfurized oilTrimofin 55 : Chlorinated and sulfurized oilTrimofin 56 : Chlorinated and sulfurized oilTrimofin 58 : High viscosity sulfurized oil
15 TESTS CONDUCTED ON CUTTING FLUIDS DensityFlash pointViscosityViscosity IndexPour pointNeutralisation NumberVolatilityCopper strip corrosion testEmulsion testFreeze testCast iron corrosion test
16 CARE OF CUTTING FLUIDS (SOLUBLE TYPE) Do not use hard water above 500 ppm for making emulsionsKeep pH of emulsion at 9Remove chips and fines regularlyAerate the emulsion periodicallyClean the system thoroughly when changing the oilAvoid oil blanket on the surfaceBacterial treatment of the emulsionKeep the emulsion under circulation during weekly shut down
17 CARE OF CUTTING FLUIDS (OIL TYPE) Remove chips and fines regularlyRemove the sludge dailyBefore and after work , wash hands & forearms and apply suitable barrier creamDo not wear oily clothesWear protective clothingsUse splash guards
18 TRIMOFINS IN PREFERENCE TO KOOLKUTS When more lubrication is required between the contacting surfacesWhen it is necessary to reduce friction between the tool and work piece to maximum extentIn situations where it is necessary to prevent local welding of metal particles to the tool face. Sulfurized additive type straight cutting oil are best suited for this purposeFor machining of magnesium and its alloys, it is necessary to use straight cutting oils as magnesium can combine with oxygen in water and can create fire hazards
19 NUMBERING SYSTEM OF TRIMOFINS BRAND : TRIMOFINSFIRST DIGIT : Indicative of staining/ non-staining propertiesNumber 1 & 2 = Non StainingNumber 5 & 6 = StainingSECOND DIGIT : Indicative of potency scaleNumber = Lowest PotencyNumber = Highest PotencyPotency gradation based on type of EP additive and content Chlorination alone lowest potency Sulfurization with free sulfur highest potency .* If first digit is 1 then second digit indicates % of compounding withoutEP additives
20 RUST PREVENTIVE OILS METAL (IRON) WATER OXYGEN TODAYS SHINING MACHINES ARE TOMORROW'S RUST SCRAPSMETAL (IRON)WATEROXYGEN
21 RUSTING - IMPLICATIONS Damage machinery under cover as well as out of doorDelayed schedulesCostly repairsExpensive ReplacementsBASIC METHODS OF RUST PREVENTIONRemoving causes of Rust (Oxygen and Moisture )Increasing the resistance of metal to rusting(Alloying with Chromium, Nickel or Copper)Application of Protective coatings- Metallic coatings- Lacquers and paints- Oxides and chemically formed films- Petroleum based rust preventives
22 PETROLEUM RUST PREVENTIVES- TEMPORARY RUST PROTECTORS Low initial costEase of ApplicationDurabilityImpermeabilitySufficient Elasticity of the filmTransparent film
23 CHARACTERISTICS OF PETROLEUM RUST PREVENTIVES THE FILM SHOULD BERepellent to water and impervious to both water vapour and gasesHaving sufficient thickness and strength to prevent dust or other solid particles from penetrating and coming in contact with metal surfacesSo as not drain out or evaporate from the surfacesHaving self-healing propertyChemically stable and should not harden to a great extent even on continued storage
24 FACTORS AFFECTING SELECTION OF RUST PREVENTIVES ExposureNature of surface and type of equipment.Handling methods.Film characteristics desired.Packaging
25 EXPOSURE Humidity Condensation Corrosive atmosphere Duration of exposureTemperature and sunlightExposure to Fresh/Salt waterPackaging
26 HANDLING FILM CHARACTERISTICS Rough handling can cause rupture of the rust preventive film and thus expose the metal surface to the atmosphere to cause rusting.FILM CHARACTERISTICSOily lubricating filmGreasy lubricating film.Dry non lubricating filmTransparent filmEase of removalSealing abilityFilm stability and durability
27 NATURE OF SURFACES AND TYPE OF EQUIPMENT Plain smooth surfacesParts having threads,crevices and holesOpen assemblies
28 CLASSIFICATION OF RUST PREVENTIVES Light Duty : For General storage where moderatehumidity prevails with occasionalcondensation.Moderate Duty : For storage in open sheds or undertarpaulins etc.Heavy Duty : For most severe conditions of exposureOutdoor storage
29 FOUR CLASSES OF RUST PREVENTIVES CLASS USE OR COMPOSITIONHOT DIP : DIP PARTS IN MELTED PRODUCTSOLVENT CUT BACK : VOLATILE CARRIER PLUS FILMFORMING INGREDIENTSOIL TYPE : LUBRICATING OILS PLUSFILM FORMING INGREDIENTSEMULSION TYPE : MIXED WITH WATER BEFORE USE
30 HP RUST PREVENTIVES HOT DIP TYPE Products : Rustop 387Rustop 388Application : Protection during shipment andsubsequent storage involvingFor machined steel surfaces,threaded pipes, dies etc.Method : Hot DipSOLVENT CUT-BACK TYPEProducts : Rustop 173, Rustop 274, Rustop 276Applications : Indoor protection as wellas inter-process/final applicationApplied by : Dip, Spray or Brush
32 EMULSION TYPE Products : Water based Rust Preventive Applications : Steel sheets in cold rolling industriesApplied by : Dipping
33 NUMBERING SYSTEM FOR RUST PREVENTIVES Rustop Grades : Non Asphaltic ProductsFirst Digit : Indicative of product formulation: 1 for solvent based: 2 for oil based: 3 for greasy film typeSecond Digit : Indicating of film type and productProperty: 7 for water displacing: 8 for oily / greasy filmThird Digit : Indicating of colour: 0 to 9 as number increases darkerthe colour
34 QUENCHING OILS BASICS OF HEAT TREATMENT When steel is heated and cooled, the iron it contains undergoes a structural change. Hot steel at its critical temperature and above is a solid solution of carbon in face - centered - cubic - iron - Austenite. When Austenite is cooled rapidly it is transformed to Martensite - hardest possible with body centred structure.This cooling can be done by the process known as Quenching.
37 QUENCHING- OPERATING TEMPERATURES NATURE OF BATH TEMPERATURE RANGE ( ° C )WATER : UPTO 100BRINE SOLUTION : UPTO 102OIL : UPTO 260SALT :LEAD :
38 DISADVANTAGES Salt Baths : - Difficult to automate - Formation of sludge- Quenched parts are difficult to clean- Difficulties in disposing of spent salts and wash waterBrine Solution :- Metal corrosion (water)- Metal distortion- Metal crackingSynthetic Quenchants- Looses concentration- Expensive- Not easily available
40 ADVANTAGES OF PETROLEUM QUENCHING OILS Non corrosiveNon toxicSuitable for large scale automationSafe to useEasily availableComparatively low price
41 OIL CHARACTERISTICS INFLUENCING QUENCHING ABILITY BOILING POINTVISCOSITYOXIDATION STABILITYCHEMICAL STABILITYTHERMAL PROPERTIESFLASH POINTFREEDOM FROM WATER
42 COOLING STAGES IN QUENCHING A. Leindenfrost stage or vapour blanket stage- Formation of vapour due to sudden immersion of hot steel- Cooling of steel takes place by conduction and radiation- Vapours are poor conductors of heat- Cooling of metal is relatively slowB. Vapour Transport Stage- Energetic boiling of quenchent- Wetting of metal- Fastest rate of coolingC. Liquid Cooling Stage- Formation of vapour bubbles is stopped- Cooling by conduction and convection- Rate of cooling is slower compared to VT Stage.
45 TYPE OF PETROLEUM HPC QUENCHING OIL Straight Oils : Metaquench 39Metaquench 40Compounded Oils : Metaquench 42Additive type Oils : Metaquench 43Metaquench 44Marquenching Oils : Metaquench 85Metaquench 86
46 STRAIGHT OILS COMPOUNDED OILS General purpose quenching oils Compatible with cyanide carry overCan be used from ambient to 90°CCOMPOUNDED OILSBlends of straight oil and fatty oilsFatty oils assist in better wettingNot recommended for cyanided parts.
47 ADDITIVE TYPE MARQUENCHING OILS Blend of straight oil and additives Wetting agentsAnti oxidantsDetergents and DispersantsMARQUENCHING OILSBath maintained at martensite tempImparts less thermal shocks to the metal.Enables accurate and controllable quenchingLesser rejectionsUsed mainly in automotive and bearing industries
48 OPERATIONAL PROBLEMS FIRE HAZARDS Insufficient hardness can be due to Change in the composition of steelInsufficient heating of the metal to its critical temperatureTime lag in transferring the metal from furnace to bathThickening of oil due to oxidation / sludging / dirtInadequate agitationFIRE HAZARDSContamination with lighter oil fractions.Insufficient circulation.Hot SpotsPresence of water beyond 0.5%FoamingViolent Boiling
49 TYPICAL INSPECTION OF QUENCHING OIL Grade Viscosity Flash GM40 °C COC.°C QUENCHOMETER READING,SECONDSMetaquenchMetaquenchMetaquenchMetaquenchMetaquenchMetaquench 85 °CMetaquench °C
52 METAL ROLLING OILSRolling of metals is a process by which the thickness of the metal is reduced to the desired level by means of rotating rolls.
53 Metal rolling process may be divided into two basic categories : Hot Rolling : Where the metal is pre-heatedand rolledCold Rolling : Where the metal is rolled atthe ambient temperature
54 FUNCTIONS OF ROLLING OIL Reduce friction between rolls.Provide adequate 'Bite' between roll and work.Good conductor of heat.Proper viscosityGood Oxidation StabilityNon CorrosiveNon StainingNon toxic
55 CHARACTERISTICS OF ROLLING OIL Proper viscosity.Water demulsibility property.Good oxidation stability.Non corrosive.Non staining.Non toxic.
56 SELECTION OF ROLL OILS Temperature of the metal. Rolling speed. Type of metal being rolled.Temperature of the metal.Rolling speed.Reduction schedule.Roll oil system-Recirculating or once used.Annealing equipment.Quality requirements.
57 TYPES OF ROLL OILS : HP GRADES : Straight Mineral Roll Oils Compounded Roll OilsEmulsifiable Roll OilsHP GRADES :ROLMET 40ROLMET 43ROLMET 45
58 TYPICAL INSPECTION OF ROLL OILS Characteristics ROLMET ROLMET N ROLMET V 40Appearance Clear Clear ClearViscosity Kin.@ CFlash PointCOC 0 CPour Point0 CNeutralisation Nomgh KOH/gm
62 PROCESSING OF GENERAL RUBBER GOODS In order to process crude, synthetic or reclaimed rubber into condition suitable for use it must be put through several processes such as :1. Break Down2. Mixing3. Calendering4. Extruding5. Preparation for curing6. Vulcanizing
65 FUNCTIONS OF RUBBER OIL 1.Process Oils:To improve processibility of rubber in milling, mixing and extruding.To improve physical properties of valcanizites To reduce production costs2.Extender OilsUsed in extended SBR aromatic / naphthenic oil use for desired finish Theycontain 20 to 50% of oils per 100 parts of Rubber.3.Reclaiming OilsAromatic oils are widely used.5% of oil on the wt. of rubber is generally used4.Secondary PlasticizersUsed in PVC cloth manufactureDi-Octyl Phathalate (DOP)Di-Isooctyl Phathalate (DIOP)DI-Butly-Phthalate (DBP)
66 DESCRIPTION OF PETROLEUM OILS (AS PER ASTM) % Saturates % Polar % AsphaltenesCompoundsType 101(Highly aromatic) 20 Max. 25 Max Max.Type 102(Aromatic) Max. 0.5 Max.Type 103(Naphthenic) Mix Max.Type 104(Napthenic &Paraffinic) Min. 1 Max. 0.1 Max.
67 HP RUBBER OILS ELASTO 215, 245 Elasto 215 Elasto 541 Naphthenic Elasto 245 ParaffinicElasto 215Elasto 541 NaphthenicElasto 590Elasto 710 AromaticElasto 715ELASTO 215, 245Paraffinic TypeHigh Flash PointLow SolvencyGreatest use in butyl and EP DM rubbersUsed for processing light coloured goods, white walled tyres, shoe soles, toys, sporting goods.
68 ELASTO 541, 590 ELASTO 710, 715 Good colour stability Naphthenic typeGood colour stabilitySolvency better than Elasto 245Used as general purpose rubber oil, tyres, mats, footwear,moulded and extruded goodsELASTO 710, 715Aromatic typeDark colourCompatible with most rubber polymersAutomobile tyres, beltings, battery casesFor oil extended rubberFor rubber reclaiming
69 TESTING OF THE PROPERTIES OF EXTENDER AND RUBBER OILS Specific GravityViscosityFlash PointsVolatalityPour PointAniline PointNeutralization NumberRefractive Index & Refractive InterceptViscosity Gravity ConstantU.V. Absorptivity
70 REFRACTIVITY INTERCEPT The refractivity intercept of an oil is equal to refractive 20 0 C ½ density 2 0 C.VISCOSITY GRAVITY CONSTANTVGC = (G ) LOG (V )0.755G = Sp FV1 = FGENERAL INTERPRETATION OF VGCVGC Range Oil TypeParaffinicNaphthenic0.90 and above Aromatic
73 RUBBER OILS : NOMENCLATURE Brand ELASTOFirst Digit : Indicative of aromatic content.First digit multiplied by 10gives approx. % aromatics.Second andThird Digits :Indicative viscositySecond and Third digits together show approx. 100 OCWhen product viscosity is more than 210 0F Last two digitsMultiplied by 10 give products100 OC.
74 RUBBER OILS Properties Elasto 245 541 710 Viscosity 40 OC@ 100 0CFlash Point, COC OCAniline Point, COC OCPour Point OCMolecular AnalysisASTM D 2007Asphltenes Wt % Nil Nil NilPolar Compounds wt %Aromatics wt %Saturates wt %
76 Heat transfer fluids or heat carriers are defined as fluids which absorb thermal energy delivered from a source and then by cooling, or change of phase surrender to a place of utilization called a sink.
77 TYPES OF HEAT TRANSFER MEDIA Grases - AirVapours - SteamLiquids - Mineral Oil
78 HEAT TRANSFER FLUID Major Advantage of Liquid heat transfer fluid Lower cost installationLarge diameter pipingSafety ValvesCapital Cost Reduction Steam TrapsWater treatment facilitiesLower Operating CostLow Maintenance RequirementReduced Make Up
79 PETROLEUM HEAT TRANSFER FLUID Meet the exacting requirement of the customer.Manufactured under special refining process.Contribute an unusual versatility that improves operating characteristics in a number of important respects.
80 1. Design Properties (Heat transfer and Transport properties). SELECTION CRITERIA1. Design Properties (Heat transfer and Transport properties).Density specific gravity expansion coefficient.Heat capacity (Specific heat).Heat content (Enthalpy).Heat conductivity.Viscosity.2. Construction Properties (Limited Properties)Physical stability.Chemical stability.Thermal stability.Cost3. Operation Properties (Handling Properties)Surface tension.Corrosion.Flammability.Physiological effects
81 PROPERTIES OF THERMIC FLUID Reasonably low pour point.Specific heat - heat transfer properties are reasonably well maintained.Thermally stable.Stability to oxidation.Not too viscous at ambient temperature (Cold start problem)Should not loose viscosity too much at high temperature - (High VI)Low vapour pressure - Fairly high Boiling PointFree from water & insoluble materials.Free from acidic reaction.
82 HP HEAT TRANSFER FLUIDS HYTHERM 400HYTHERM 500HYTHERM 600
83 TYPICAL INSPECTION OF THERMIC FLUIDS CHARACTERISTICS HYTHERM HYTHERM600Viscosity Kin.40 0CFlash Point, COC, 0 CPour Point, 0 C 0Neut No, mg KOH/gmSpecific CThermal C
93 SHOCK ABSORBER OILS SHOCK ABSORBER DAMPING EFFECT INCREASES COMFORT SHOCK ABSORBER HYDRULIC TYPEPNEUMATIC TYPEBOTH THESE TYPES OF SHOCK ABSORBERS NEED TO BEOIL FILLED,SEALED FOR LIFE.SHOCK ABSORBER ASSEMBLY HAS RUBBER COMPONENTSTO SEAL OIL LEAKAGE WHICH COMES IN CONTACT WITHOIL.MINERAL OIL AFFECTS RUBBER.HENCE DUE IMPORTANCEIS GIVEN WHILE FORMULATING SHOCK ABSORBER OILS.THUS ANNILINE POINT SPECIFICATION BECOMESIMPORTANT.
94 IMPORTANT MANUFACTURERS OF SHOCK ABSORBERS STALLION SHOXHYDRAULICS LTD.INTERNATIONAL INSTRUMENTSGABRIEL INDIA LTD.D.H.WOODHEADSACHSARMSTRONGMUNJAL SHOVA(HERO HONDA- REAR)ESCORTS TELE
95 SPECIFICATIONS CHARACTERISTIC HP SHOCK ABSORBER OIL TELE AW KINEMATIC VISCOSITY40 oC100 oCPOUR POINT, oCFLASH POINT, oCANNILINE POINT, oCRUBBER SWELLING TESTCHANGE IN VOL%MAX
96 SPECIFICATIONS CHARACTERISTIC HP SHOCK ABSORBER OIL LIGHT HEAVY KINEMATIC VISCOSITY40 oC100 oC AVG MIN.POUR POINT, oCFLASH POINT, oCANNILINE POINT, oCSAP VALUE,MG.KOH/gmCOPPER STRIP CORROSION3 100 oC MAX.FOAM STABILITY /0/ /0/02 INC MIN
97 SIGNIFICANCE OF THE CHARACTERISTICS ANILINE POINT LOWER THE ANNILINE POINTGREATER THE SWELLING TENDENCY.POUR POINT LOWER POUR POINT MAKES THESE OILSSUITABLE FOR YEAR ROUND SERVICE IN ALL WEATHER CONDITIONS.
98 AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE FLUIDS MINERAL OIL AFFECTS ALL TYPES OF RUBBER HENCE BRAKE FLUID IS NOT MADE WITH USE OF MINERAL OIL.SIMILARLY VEGETABLE OILS DETERIORATE FASTER AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND CAUSE SAFETY RISK.HENCE NOT USED IN MODERN VEHICLES.MIXTURE OF CASTOR OIL AND ALCOHOL, GLYCOLS AND POLYGLYCOLS ARE USED TO PRODUCE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRAKE FLUIDS.
99 BRAKE FLUIDSISI HAS WITHDRAWN IS: FOR MODERATE DUTY BRAKE FLUIDHP STANDARD BRAKE FLUID NO LONGER MARKETED.WE MARKET TWO TYPES OF BRAKE FLUIDS-- HP HEAVY DUTY BRAKE FLUID MEETS IS: (AMENDMENT-1) SPECS.SUITABLE FOR USE IN MOST AUTOMOTIVE VEHICLES AND CARRIES THEIR APPROVAL.- HP SUPER DUTY BRAKE FLUID (DOT 3) MEETS - FMVSS16 DOT 3 OF USE\ASAE JAN. 80IS :
100 BRAKE FLUIDS SPECIFICATION HP SUPER DUTY BRAKE FLUID Dot-4 Dot 3 KINEMATIC VISCOSITY0 C MIN MINC MAX MAXMAX BOILING POINT 0 CSIGNIFICANCE OF TESTS:REFLUXE BOILING POINT - HIGH REFLUXE BOILING POINT AVOIDS VAPOUR LOCK AT HIGH SERVICE TEMPERATURE
101 AUTOMOTIVE BRAKE FLUIDS MINERAL OIL AFFECTS ALL THESE TYPES OF RUBBER HENCE BRAKE FLUID IS NOT MADE WITH USE OF MINERAL OIL.SIMILARLY VEGETABLE OILS DETERIORATE FASTER AT HIGH TEMPERATURE AND CAUSE SAFETY RISK.HENCE NOT USED IN MODERN VEHICLES.MIXTURE OF CASTOR OIL AND ALCOHOL, GLYCOLS AND POLYGLYCOLS ARE USED TO PRODUCE DIFFERENT TYPES OF BRAKE FLUIDS.
102 HP KOOLGARDEFFECTIVE COOLANTFREEZE PROTECTIONCOOLING SYSTEM PROTECTION
103 HP KOOLGARDMEETS JIS-2234 SPECIFICATIONSMEETS ASTM PERFORMANCECONCENTRATIONS RECOMMENDED33% IN WATER FOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURES UP TO (-) 15 OC50% IN WATER FOR AMBIENT TEMPERATURES UP TO (-) 34 OC