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Vocal pedagogy.

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Presentation on theme: "Vocal pedagogy."— Presentation transcript:

1 Vocal pedagogy

2 Contact information Frances Ascott ENT Dept Manchester Royal Infirmary (voic )

3 Vocal pedagogy The method and practice of teaching
In order that you can effectively teach students in singing you need to understand the mechanism. It is no longer acceptable to teach purely “by ear” although your musical skills, interpretation, tuning and many more shills are also required. The first part of this course is dealing with the physical aspect of voice production. Valuable for you as singers and as a teachers of singing

4 Opportunity for Questions
As we go along At the end of sessions Make an appointment/arrangement At end of course

5 A Functional Approach to Voice Production
Anatomy Need 2x laryngeal models ?servox Handouts VCN video Normal larynx video

6 Cycle of voice production

7 course Anatomy and physiology of these systems Function

8 Aim To visit the anatomy of the larynx to be able to visualise the 3D image as a basis for understanding the movement.

9 Useful terminology in anatomy



12 Vocal tract Respiratory system Larynx Pharynx Oral cavity Nasal cavity

13 Larynx

14 Main functions of the larynx
Respiration Acts as a valve to regulate airflow Protection/swallowing Closes during swallow to prevent aspiration by action of epiglottis and up and forward movement Thoracic fixation Closure of upper airway temporarily to increase abdominal pressure

15 Position of larynx

16 Larynx The larynx sits at the top of the windpipe/trachea
It sits in front of the hypopharynx

17 Laryngeal cartilages Cartilages Bone 1 x thyroid 1 x cricoid
2 x arytenoid 1 x epiglottis 2 x corniculate 2 x cuneiform 2 x triticea Bone hyoid

18 Larynx from front


20 Thyroid cartilage

21 Thyroid cartilage Thyroid cartilage is the largest cartilage
Made of 2 quadrangular plates called thyroid lamina. Each plate has 2 surfaces :Inner & outer 4 Borders : Upper,Lower,anterior,posterior Anterior border Anterior borders unites at an angle or approximately 90° in men and 120° in women Thyroid prominence (Adams apple) separated by Thyroid notch

22 Thyroid cartilage Posterior borders :Prolonged upwards & downwards called Sup. & Inf. Horns or Cornu Superior horn connects to the hyoid bone Lateral thyrohyoid ligament Inferior horn is connected to the cricoid cartilage by Cricothyroid joint in a facet at the medial surface for cricoid arch Ossification or calcification of the thyroid cartilage begins early at around 20 years starting posteriorly and inferiorly

23 Thyroid cartilage Halfway between the thyroid notch and the inferior border is a slight depression which marks the level of the vocal cords. The cartilage is covered in perichondrium and on the inner surface this is covered my mucosal membrane

24 Cricoid cartilage

25 Cricoid cartilage This a signet ring in shape
It is the only full ring of cartilage in the airway The posterior lamina may be up to 30mm in height The cricoid arch at the front can be as little as a few mm in height. Because it is thin it tens to ossify/calcify later

26 Cricoid cartilage Internal dimension vary a lot
Women average 11.6mm range mm Men average 15mm range from 11-21mm The distance between the Cricothyroid joint facets also varies

27 Arytenoid cartilages

28 Arytenoid cartilages 2 Pyramidal cartilages sit on top of the wide, posterior facet of the cricoid cartilage They begin to ossify around 30 years of age. They are capable of complex movement coming together in the midline and revolve over the cricoid

29 Corniculate and Cuneiform and Triticea cartilages
Sitting on the top of the apex of the arytenoids are the Corniculate cartilages. These help with the rigidity of the aryepiglottic folds The cuneiform cartilages in the aryepiglottic folds help with epiglottic movement in swallowing The Triticeal cartilages are within the thyrohyoid ligament and can be mistaken on x-ray for a foreign body Classified as minor cartilages

30 Epiglottis

31 Position of the epiglottis

32 Epiglottis Arises on the inner surface of the thyroid cartilage above the insertion of the vocal cords. Ligaments attach from the epiglottis to the hyoid bone, the thyroid cartilage, and the base of the tongue. Attachment via ligaments rather than joints allows the epiglottic to move passively in tandem with these structures It is quite soft and flexible

33 Intrinsic muscles of the larynx
The muscle within the larynx have three main purposes Changing the tension of the vocal folds Opening Closing the vocal folds They may be described as abductor, adductor, tensor and relaxer

34 Intrinsic muscles superior and sagittal views

35 Intrinsic muscles anterior and posterior views

36 Abductor muscle (opening)
Posterior cricoarytenoid PCA Traditionally credited as the only abductor Paired muscle from the posterior surface of the cricoid cartilage and inserts onto the muscular process of the arytenoids Pulls back on the muscular process swinging the front ends away from each other so opening the glottis for respiration

37 Posterior Cricoarytenoid

38 Abductors and adductors

39 Adductor muscles Lateral cricoarytenoid Interarytenoid muscles

40 Lateral cricoartenoid
Plays the most active role in the protection of the airway through closure It regulates medial compression May have some abductory abilities

41 Inter-arytenoid muscles
Transverse muscle is unpaired Obliques are paired Transverse pulls arytenoids horizontally together

42 Movement or arytenoids

43 Adductors 1

44 Adductors 2

45 Relaxer Muscle The thyro-arytenoid is the main pitch lowering muscle. Contraction shortens the muscle lowering the pitch Also contraction straightens and closes the vocal folds It forms the bulk of the vocal cord It has 2 distinct muscle bands Medial Thyroarytenoid (vocalis) Lateral Thyroarytenoid (thromuscularis)

46 Thyro-arytenoid muscles
Note when the muscle is contracted and also opposed by other muscles this will result in an increase in tension so it may also be described as a tensor Check diagram to see muscle bands making up the vocal fold

47 Thyro-arytenoid muscles

48 Thyro-arytenoid muscles

49 Tensor muscles The paired crico-thyroid muscles which have two distinct parts pulling in slightly different directions By closing the cricothyroid at the front the vocal folds are elongated and stretched increasing tension and pitch

50 Cricothyroid muscles

51 Action of cricothtroid

52 Cricothyroid muscles

53 Aryepiglottic muscles
Sometimes describes as a sphincter Not easily fit into one of above categories but still intrinsic laryngeal muscle These muscle are continuation of oblique arytenoid muscle to epiglottis. Pulls epiglottis down during swallow. Control not understood

54 Aryepiglottic muscles

55 Intrinsic membranes and ligaments
Then form important structure to the larynx. Conus elasticus is cone shaped below the vocal folds. In the anterior midline it forms the cricothyroid ligament which then divided to form vocal ligament (from the anterior inner surface of the thyroid cartilage back to the arytenoids. This is part of the vocal fold.

56 Membranes and ligament

57 Intrinsic membranes and ligaments
The quadragular membrane form the side walls of the laryngeal vestibule above the vocal folds The inferior border forms the ventricular ligament in the ventricular folds (or false vocal folds) The ventricular folds move largely passively. The mechanism is not entirely understood. Ideally they should be retracted to allow maximum freedom for vocal cord vibration

58 Extrinsic muscles Titze 1994

59 Laryngeal Elevators Elevators Digastric Stylohyoid Mylohyoid
Geniohyoid Thyrohyoid Hyoglossus Genioglossus muscles Listed so that you have heard of them How named attached to hyoid / tongue Point to note that there are more of them than the depressors Palpate mylohyoid +/- swallow

60 Laryngeal depressors Sternohyoid Omohyoid
The laryngeal depressors are the sternohyoid and omohyoid muscles. They pull down the larynx rather than push it down (infra hyoid muscles) Much lowering of the larynx is by a relaxation of the suprahoid muscles

61 Muscles which raise the larynx are called elevators
Elevation often goes with increase in pitch but the larynx can raise independent of pitch. There will be an acoustic change. Opera quality require a fairly low position where as belt require a high setting.

62 References Obert and Chicurel (2005) Geography of the Voice. Pub Estill voice training systems Perkins and Kent (1986) Textbook of Functional Anatomy of Speech, Language and Hearing. Pub Taylor and Francis Sataloff (2006) Vocal Health and Pedagogy. Vol 1 Pub. Plural

63 Further viewing via You Tube




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