# Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz.

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Welcome to CMPE003 Personal Computers: Hardware and Software Dr. Chane Fullmer Fall 2002 UC Santa Cruz

October 4, 2002 2 Assignments No late assignments will be accepted 2 nd Homework Due Now!!

October 4, 2002 3 Assignments Homework #3 – Due October 18 Design your own Webpage Keep in mind --- The world at large will see your page Don’t put private or sensitive information on your Webpage. Details and sample – see class page – http://www.soe.ucsc.edu/classes/cmpe003/Fall02/

October 4, 2002 4 Midterm #1 Friday – October 11 Chapters 1 – 5 ~50 questions Multiple choice Bring Scantron form #F-1712-ERI-L (big & pink) Bring your student ID Required to take exam

The Central Processing Unit: What Goes on Inside the Computer Chapter 4 Part b

October 4, 2002 6 Objectives Identify the components of the central processing unit and how they work together and interact with memory Describe how program instructions are executed by the computer Explain how data is represented in the computer Describe how the computer finds instructions and data Describe the components of a microcomputer system unit’s motherboard List the measures of computer processing speed and explain the approaches that increase speed

October 4, 2002 7 Number systems Binary Number: base 2 on and off 0,1 ones=2 0, twos=2 1, fours=2 2, etc 0000 0000 = 0 base 10 0000 0001 = 1 base 10 0000 0010 = 2 base 10 0000 0011 = 3 base 10 0000 1010 = 10 base 10

October 4, 2002 8 Binary Number System We have 10 fingers Computers have devices with 2 states...1000100101...10^310^210^110^0 10011the binary number 2^42^32^22^12^0place values (1 * 2^4) + (0 * 2^3) + (0 * 2^2) + (1 * 2^1) + (1 * 2^0) = 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1 = 19

October 4, 2002 9 Hexadecimal Numbers Hexadecimal Number: base 16 alternative representation to binary 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9,A,B,C,D,E,F ones=16 0, sixteens=16 1, 256's=16 2, etc translation of hex into binary 0000 0000 = 0 base 16 = 0 base 10 0000 0001 = 1 base 16 = 1 base 10 0000 1010 = A base 16 = 10 base 10 0001 0000 = 10 base 16 = 16 base 10

October 4, 2002 10 Hexadecimal Table 0000010008 0001110019 001021010A (10) 001131011B (11) 010041100C (12) 010151101D (13) 011061110E (14) 011171111F (15)

October 4, 2002 11 Hexadecimal Example #1 Hexadecimal (called ‘hex’) is often written with a prefix of ‘0x’ 0xFF or 0xff 0xFF = 1111 1111 = (0xF * 16^1) + (0xF * 16^0) = (15 * 16) + (15 * 1) = 240 + 15 = 255

October 4, 2002 12 Hexadecimal Example #2 0x10 = 0001 0000 = (0x1 * 16^1) + (0x0 * 16^0) = (1 * 16) + (0 * 1) = 16 + 0 = 16 0xA5 = 1010 0101 = (0xA * 16^1) + (0x5 * 16^0) = (10 * 16) + (5 * 1) = 160 + 5 = 165

October 4, 2002 13 The System Unit The Black Box Houses electronic components Motherboard Storage devices Connections Some Apple Macintosh models have system unit inside monitor

October 4, 2002 14 The System Unit The Black Box Motherboard Microprocessor chip Memory chips Connections to other parts of the hardware Additional chips may be added – math coprocessor

October 4, 2002 15 The System Unit The Black Box Storage Devices Hard drive Floppy drive CD-ROM drive DVD-ROM drive

October 4, 2002 16 What is in our computer?

October 4, 2002 17 Table Camera view of Motherboard

October 4, 2002 18 Microprocessor CPU etched on a chip Chip size is ¼ x ¼ inch Composed of silicon Contains millions of transistors Electronic switches that can allow current to pass through

October 4, 2002 19 Microprocessor Components Control Unit – CU Arithmetic / Logic Unit – ALU Registers System clock

October 4, 2002 20 Building a Better Microprocessor Computers imprint circuitry onto microchips Cheaper Faster Perform functions of other hardware Math coprocessor is now part of microprocessor Multimedia instructions are now part of microprocessor

October 4, 2002 21 Building a Better Microprocessor The faster the computer runs The cheaper it is to make The more reliable it is The more functions that are combined on a microprocessor:

October 4, 2002 22 Types of Microprocessors Intel Pentium Celeron Xeon Itanium Intel- compatible Cyrix AMD

October 4, 2002 23 Types of Microprocessors PowerPC Cooperative efforts of Apple, IBM, and Motorola Used in Apple Macintosh family of PCs Found in servers and embedded systems Alpha Manufactured by Compaq (formerly DEC) High-end servers and workstations

October 4, 2002 24 Semiconductor Memory Reliable Compact Low cost Low power usage Mass-produced economically Volatile Made up of tiny circuits, each able to represent ‘0’ or ‘1’ (bits)

October 4, 2002 25 Semiconductor Memory CMOS Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) Uses little electricity Used in PC to store hardware settings that are needed to boot the computer Retains information with current from battery

October 4, 2002 26 RAM Keeps the instructions and data for current program Data in memory can be accessed randomly Easy and speedy access Volatile Can be Erased Written over

October 4, 2002 27 Types of RAM SRAM (Static RAM) Retains contents as long as power is maintained Faster than DRAM

October 4, 2002 28 Types of RAM DRAM (Dynamic RAM) Must be constantly refreshed Used for most PC memory because of size and cost SDRAM (Synchronous DRAM) faster type of DRAM RDRAM (Rambus DRAM) Faster than SDRAM Expensive

October 4, 2002 29 Adding RAM Purchase memory modules that are packaged on circuit boards SIMMS – Chips on one side DIMMS – Chips on both sides Maximum amount of RAM that can be installed is based upon the motherboard design

October 4, 2002 30 Table Camera view of Memory Modules

October 4, 2002 31 ROM Programs and data that are permanently recorded at the factory Read-only Cannot be changed by the user Stores boot routine that is activated when computer is turned on Non-volatile

October 4, 2002 32 PROM Programmable ROM ROM burner can change instructions on some type of ROM chips

October 4, 2002 33 Bus Line Paths that transport electrical signals System bus Transports data between the CPU and memory Bus width Number of bits of data that can be carried at a time Normally the same as the CPUs word size Speed measured in MHz

October 4, 2002 34 Bus Line CPU can support a greater number and variety of instructions CPU can support a greater number and variety of instructions Larger bus width = More powerful computer CPU can transfer more data at a time = Faster computer CPU can reference larger memory addresses = More memory available

October 4, 2002 35 Expansion Buses Connect the motherboard to expansion slots Plug expansion boards into slots interface cards adapter cards Provides for external connectors / ports Serial Parallel

October 4, 2002 36 Expansion Buses

October 4, 2002 37 PC Buses and Ports ISASlow-speed devices like mouse, modem PCIHigh-speed devices like hard disks and network cards AGPConnects memory and graphics card for faster video performance USBSupports “daisy-chaining” eliminating the need for multiple expansion cards; hot-swappable IEEE 1394 (FireWire) High-speed bus connecting video equipment to the computer PC Card PCMCIA Credit card sized PC card devices normally found on laptops

October 4, 2002 38 What is in our computer?

October 4, 2002 39 Speed and Power What makes a computer fast? Microprocessor speed Bus line size Availability of cache L1 & L2 Flash memory RISC computers Parallel processing

October 4, 2002 40 Computer Processing Speed Time to execute an instruction Millisecond Microsecond Nanosecond Modern computers Picosecond In the future

October 4, 2002 41 Microprocessor Speed Clock speed Megahertz (MHz) Gigahertz (GHz) Number of instructions per second Millions of Instructions Per Second (MIPS) Performance of complex mathematical operations One million floating-point operations per second (Megaflops – MFLOPS)

October 4, 2002 42 Cache Small block of very fast temporary memory Speed up data transfer Instructions and data used most frequently or most recently

October 4, 2002 43 Cache Step 1 Processor requests data or instructions Step 2 Go to address in main memory and read Step 3 Transfer to main CPU and cache Next processor request Look first at cache Go to memory PROCESSORPROCESSOR RAMRAM Cache

October 4, 2002 44 Types of Cache Internal cache Level 1 (L1) Built into microprocessor Up to 128KB External cache Level 2 (L2) Separate chips 256KB or 512 KB SRAM technology Cheaper and slower than L1 Faster and more expensive than memory

October 4, 2002 45 Flash Memory Nonvolatile RAM Used in Cellular phones Digital cameras Digital music recorders PDAs

October 4, 2002 46 Instruction Sets CISC Technology Complex Instruction Set Computing Conventional computers Many of the instructions are not used RISC Technology Reduced Instruction Set Computing Small subset of instructions Increases speed Programs with few complex instructions Graphics Engineering

October 4, 2002 47 Types of Processing Serial processing Execute one instruction at a time Fetch, decode, execute, store Parallel Processing Multiple processors used at the same time Can perform trillions of floating-point instructions per second (teraflops) Ex: network servers, supercomputers

October 4, 2002 48 Types of Processing Pipelining Instruction’s action need not be complete before the next begins Fetch instruction 1, begin to decode and fetch instruction 2 Super Scalar Executes multiple instructions per cycle

October 4, 2002 49

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