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What you should know about Wood

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Presentation on theme: "What you should know about Wood"— Presentation transcript:

1 What you should know about Wood

2 Comparison of Hardwood & Softwood
Definition Comes from angiosperm trees that are not monocots; trees are usually broad-leaved. Has vessel elements that transport water throughout the wood; under a microscope, these elements appear as pores. Generally speaking all this means that hardwoods come from deciduous trees – trees that drop their leaves. Hardwoods are not always “harder” than softwoods – Balsa is a hardwood, but is softer than pine. Comes from gymnosperm trees which usually have needles and cones. Medullary rays and tracheids transport water and produce sap. When viewed under a microscope, softwoods have no visible pores because of tracheids. And generally speaking all this means that softwoods come from evergreen trees like pine.

3 Comparison of Hardwood & Softwood
USES Hardwoods are more likely to be found in high-quality furniture, decks, flooring, and construction that needs to last. About 80% of all timber comes from softwood. Softwoods have a wide range of applications and are found in building components (e.g., windows, doors, framing), furniture, medium-density fiberboard (MDF), paper, Christmas trees, and much more.

4 Comparison of Hardwood & Softwood
Examples Examples of hardwood trees include alder, balsa, beech, hickory, mahogany, maple, oak, teak, and walnut. Examples of softwood trees are cedar, Douglas fir, juniper, pine, redwood, spruce, and yew. Differences Hardwoods generally are denser, the trees shed their leaves, they cost more, and they are a little more fire resistant. Most importantly, they have a slower growth rate. Softwoods are generally less dense, cost less, don’t shed their leaves (or needles), are less fire resistant, and grow faster.

5 The Interweb has EVERYTHING!!
Example: this video which has to be from the 70’s or 80’s: These are the different ways lumber is cut: More about cutting:

6 Wait… a 2”x4” is not really 2”x4”???
Wood sizes are given in the rough cut size. So at the mill they used to cut a 2”x4” piece of wood, then as it dried it shrank. Now, they have much more control over the process, but they set their machines to the old sizes… some might think this is so they make more money… hmmm.


8 Rare Hardwoods


10 Common hardwood for furniture


12 How natural wood deforms
One problem often encountered with natural wood is that it can deform. Causes for this usually have to do with the drying process or conditions where the wood was stored.



15 Man Made Wood Manufactured or Engineered wood is made in a factory from sheets of wood or chips or even sawdust. Unlike natural wood, when you purchase engineered wood it is exactly the size it says it is. Engineered lumber has many uses, you interact with it everyday. While many types of engineered lumber are less attractive than natural wood, you can buy hardwood veneer plywood (veneer means a thin slice of wood – usually about 1/8” thick that forms the outside layer of a sheet of plywood) which has all the beauty of the original wood – though it will cost more than less attractive plywood.

16 Manufactured or Engineered Lumber
Board Type Image Uses MDF - Smooth, even surface. Easily machined and painted or stained. Also available in water and fire resistant forms. Used mainly for furniture and interior paneling due to its easy machining qualities. Often veneered or painted. Plywood - A very strong board which is constructed of layers of veneer or piles which are glued at 90 degrees to each other. Interior and exterior grades are available. Used for strong structural paneling board used in building construction. Furniture making. Some grades used for boat building and exterior work. Chipboard - Made from chips of wood glued together. Usually veneered or covered in plastic laminate. Used for kitchen and bedroom furniture usually veneered or covered with a plastic laminated. Shelving and general DIY work.

17 Manufactured or Engineered Lumber
Board Type Image Uses Oriented Strand Board (OSB) -  made from rectangular-shaped strands of wood that are oriented lengthwise and then arranged in layers, laid up into mats, and bonded together with moisture-resistant, heat-cured adhesives. The individual layers are cross-oriented to provide strength and stiffness to the panel. Produced in huge, continuous mats, OSB is a solid panel product of consistent quality with no laps, gaps or voids. Used where heavier structures are needed. Common for shelving and worktops, home construction, etc. Hardboard - A very cheap particle board which sometimes has a laminated plastic surface. Used for furniture backs, covering curved structures, door panels.

18 Manufactured or Engineered Lumber
Advantages of Man-made Lumber Disadvantages of Man-made lumber Manufactured wood can be designed specifically to meet the needs it will be used for. It is VERY stable compared to natural wood. Available in wide variety of thicknesses, grades, and sizes. Engineered wood panels are easy to work with using ordinary tools and basic skills. They can be cut, drilled, routed, jointed, glued, and fastened. Plywood can be bent to form curved surfaces without loss of strength. They can be made from small pieces of wood, wood that has defects or underutilized species May burn more quickly than solid lumber They require more primary energy for their manufacture than solid lumber. The glues used in some products may be toxic. A concern with some resins is the release of formaldehyde in the finished product, often seen with urea-formaldehyde bonded products. Cutting and otherwise working with some products can expose workers to toxic compounds.

19 The Interweb has EVERYTHING!! Part 2
Making MDF: Plywood – how they peel the log, they would then layer and glue the peels into sheets of plywood Vietnam plywood plant…

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