textbook Nicolas Tate A History of the Modern World, Federal Publications (S) Pte Ltd, 1995.
MAPWORK Find the following countries on the map Britain, France, Norway, Italy, Belgium, Russia, Poland, Finland, Estonia, Denmark, Lithuania, Latvia, Germany, Austria, Czechoslovakia, Sweden, Portugal, Spain, Greece, Switzerland,, Hungary, Romania, Turkey, Albania
MAPWORK Find the following cities London, Paris, Warsaw, Moscow,St Petersburg, Petrograd, Vladivostok, Munich, Berlin
Don’t be “LOST” and ‘BLUR” when we study The Tsar & the Russian Empire Reasons for the 2 revolutions in Russia in 1917 Who were the Bolsheviks What communism means The Reds and Whites 1918-1921 (not the Japanese Red and White Show, you #$#@!) How Lenin tried to change the Russian economy
The Russian Empire under Tsar Nicholas Look at the extent of the Russian Empire in 1914 (p 42) It stretches from Europe in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east The Russian Empire was ruled by the Tsar or the emperor In 1914, it was Nicolas II
The Russian Empire under Tsar Nicholas Nicolas II was very powerful Made decisions on his own 1905 – protests and demonstrations Nicholas was forced to set up a parliament (Duma) However, it had little influence on the govt ruled by the Tsar
The Russian Society The Aristocracy –The rich minority –Most powerful The Middle class –Merchants, bankers, doctors, lawyers –Not many around; little influence in govt matters The Peasants –Majority of the people –Peasants more than town workers –Mostly engaged in farming –Resent their poverty; resent the rich The Town workers –Lived and worked in cities –More involved in demonstrations –Poor working conditions –Govt did not help much
Opposition to tsarist rule Opposition for many different reasons “Bloody Sunday” A peaceful demonstration in the capital St Petersburg was fired upon by troops Led to further protests Eventually Tsar Nicholas agreed to call a ‘Duma’ or parliament On 22 Jan 1905, there was a march of industrial workers on St. Petersburg, the intellectual center of Russia and the Tsar’s capital. Father Gapon, carrying a crucifix, led the workers with their wives and children (including infants) to the city centre. Guards, instructed that the people should not reach the palace, ordered the crowds to leave. When the people refused, the guards began shooting at them, first with blanks then with ball cartridges, killing women and children along with men. Shocked, the workers turned and fled for their lives. Several hundreds were killed.
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR 1.Social Revolutionaries 2.Social Democrats or Marxists 3.Liberals
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR 1.Social Revolutionaries SocialSocial because they wanted to change society RevolutionariesRevolutionaries because they were willing to take part in a revolution The SR were prepared to use violence to bring about a revolution Wanted to seize land owned by the aristocracy and turn them over the peasants Naturally most of their support came from the peasants Many officials were assassinated – part of the SR campaign
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR 2.Social Democrats or Marxists Also want complete change to society Also prepared to use violence However, their support comes mainly from the town workers rather than the peasants Marxists follow the teachings of a 19 th century German thinker called KARL MARX
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR KARL MARX Marx believed that violent revolutions would take place in all countries All power transferred to the ordinary people No private property Everything belongs to the state and the state would use it on behalf of the people Marx’s ideas were known as “socialism” or “communism” His followers were thus known as socialists or communists See Page 60
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR 2.Social Democrats or Marxists The Marxists were a small party in Russia Also divided among themselves 1903 : Split up into 2 groups – the Bolsheviks (the majority) and the Mensheviks (the minority) Bolsheviks were led by Lenin Main difference : Bolsheviks were impatient for revolution to occur
OPPONENTS OF THE TSAR 3.Liberals These opponents of the Tsar believed in peaceful means of opposition Wanted the Tsar to share power with some of the people Demanded for a parliament with real power and rule only with its consent
WORLD WAR I Outbreak of WWI against Germany in 1914 changed the situation 1915 : Nicholas II decided to go to the front and lead the army himself
WORLD WAR I Poor leader, made bad decisions His wife ran the country; made bad decisions and chose bad advisers (Rasputin) Events led to the Feb 1917 Revolution First, let’s see the impact of WWI on Russia
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI Inflation Fewer factory workers (?) Military Defeat Massive food shortages The Tsar The Tsarina Inefficient railway system
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI 1.Inflation Prices skyrocketed Between 1914 to 1916, average wages doubles But basic food (potatoes, bread) cost 3 to 5 times as much 2.Fewer factory workers (?) Workers needed to join the army But factories needed more workers to produce war goods More peasants left the countryside for the towns Is it a net gain or net loss of factory workers?
Impact of WWI 3.Military Defeat Russia suffered many defeats Lost a lot of land 1 million killed, more than 4 million wounded, 3 million POWs Rasputin : The Tsar and especially his wife came under the influence of a monk called Rasputin
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI 4.Massive food shortages Worsened as the war dragged on Peasants already unable to produce enough food during peacetime, let alone when workers and horses were taken for the army Inefficient food collection and distribution Result : People starved while undistributed food rotted
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI 5.The Tsar The Tsar decided to go to the front and lead the army himself He made a poor leader and was not an inspiration to his troops at all He was also blamed for the military defeats suffered at the hands of the Germans
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI 6.The Tsarina Inexperienced and incompetent Personally unpopular because she was a German Listened to the bad advice of Rasputin
WORLD WAR I Impact of WWI 7.Inefficient railway system Failed to cope with the additional demands of war What do you think were the effects of an inefficient railway in the country embroiled in war?
The First Revolution Feb 1917 The first revolution of 1917 was unplanned; spontaneous People protested in Petrograd (Nicholas renamed St Petersburg as Petrograd) Soldiers ignored orders to disperse the protests and joined them instead Generals could not help the Tsar as they lost control of the troops Nicholas II abdicated in favour of his brother, Grand Duke Michael who refused to become Tsar
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Information and image sources –Moreira J., World in Transition – Perspectives on Modern World History, Singapore : SNP Education Pte Ltd, 2000. –Kelly N. and Shuter J., As It Was Lived – A History of the Modern World, Singapore : Pearson Education Asia Pte Ltd, 2000. –Lim S H, Tham Y P, Wang Z and Yeo L, Inroads – Modern World History, Singapore : Oxford University Press, 2000. –Tate N., A History of the Modern World, Singapore : Federal Publications, 1995.