Presentation on theme: "His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change"— Presentation transcript:
1 His 1130 Colonial Latin America, Indigenous People and Cultural Change
2 Reading Quiz: Coates Ch. 3 Chapter Focus on Mutual Discovery25 points per question:1. How did Europeans describe the indigenous peoples that they met around the world?2. What were indigenous impressions of the newcomers?3. What does European focus on “heathenism” and “savagery” tell us about their own world?4. What legacies of “First Contacts” are still visible?
3 Prepare for next classDebate on African Slave Trade: See details on ASULEARNOperative question: How did the slave trade change indigenous peoples, both in Africa and in the Americas?1. Why did the Europeans enslave Africans?A. Economic reasons (argued by A-M)B. Racism and previous existence of slavery in Africa (argued by N-Z)2. Did the Atlantic Slave trade change cultures in the Americas?A. Slavery changed cultures in the Americas to a great degree (argued by A-M)B. Slavery had little influence on cultures in the Americas (argued by N-Z)
4 A. Indigenous People in Latin America under Colonial Rule What have we already learned and what do you know?
5 1. Sixteenth Century Death and Resistance Flight and Resistance: Chief HatueyGuahaba (Haiti), fled to eastern CubaEncomienda tribute andRepartimiento Labor Systems1536 Manco Inca besieged Cuzco1541 Mixtec fortified Mixtón and Nochistlánin New Spain, besieged Guadalajara to protest the encomiendaSpanish and Tlaxcaltec and Aztec soldiers recaptured towns1564 Taki Onqoy movement in Huamanga, PeruReche (Araucanian) resistance, ongoing until 1882Demographic Collapse and numbers, implications
6 2. La Republica de IndiosSeparate nation, a hereditary tribute-paying casteIndian noblesCorruption by kurakas, caciquesWhy so divided?Conditions pitted ayllus againstkurakas, ejidos against caciquesDemands and agressionsBy late 16th century, nativearistrocracy in full decline
7 3. Seventeenth Century: Ongoing Integration into Colonial Systems Indigenous people drawn into social castesystem and colonial legal frameworkGuaman Poma de Ayala: translator on visitas,1,189-page letter to King Philip III 1600Labor: haciendas, plantations, crafts,brickmaking, artisanship, textiles
10 Military Resistance Reche (Araucanian) resistance Indigenous Integration, urbanization, ongoingnonviolent resistanceCounter one-sided exploitation by showing indigenous agencyLong war against settlement in Brazil as Paulistas enslaved inland native people on missionsMaranhão tribes united and federated in their war against EuropeansGuaicurú tribes as far as Paraguay attacked settlements and missions
11 Hispanicized Cacique and Kuraka Familias Some indigenous chiefs become wealthyMany functioned as go-betweens tribe and Spanish authoritiesDon Antonio de Hinojosa, who from was the Nahua governor of the municipality of CuernavacaVast majority of resistance was nonviolent
12 4. General Conditions and Resistance Eighteenth Century ResistanceIndigenous demographic recoveryCreation of pan-indigenous identityOngoing Araucanian war against Spanish hegemony in ChileMoysuti in Brazil Dominican mission burned, control entire western Brazilian savannaover 100 Andean uprisings due to labor in Silver mines
13 Andean Uprisings Colonial Crisis 1742 Juan Santos Atahualpa messianic insurrection in the central highlands1780 to 1782: Insurrection of Tupac Amaru IIUprisings contribute to fear of creole eliteBolívar dealt first with the local bands of indigenous and fugitive slaves in 1821 QuitoBolívar reinforced decrees abolishing indigenous tribute and forced laborWars for independence and indigenous roles, participation
14 Sources: Global History Ch. 3 Impressions of different peoples and their culturesHow did first contacts shape cultural changes?What results of these first contacts are still evident? (Coates: p. 91)
15 E. Indian Local Government Most Indians lived in own towns, some pre-hispanic, others new as reductions Alcalde, and regidor, elected every year, traditional chiefs by consensus Drastic changes of traditional native political and social structuresIn Andes, Indian towns composed by neighborhoods or kinship gps (calpulli and ayllu) each w hereditary eldersVara (staff) of leadership in northern Andean tradition Much Hispanicization (Cultural Mixture and Change) took place: dress, religion, tools, foodSpanish barriers prevented complete HispanicizationNative communities fought to keep land, culture, speech, soc. org., dances, songsCofradias, (religious brotherhood) collective identity & security
16 E. Conclusions: Cultural Changes in Colonial Latin America How did European expansion change native cultures?Conquest and Colonial imposition:heavy material damage, psychological injuryDemographic Collapse from disease and RecoveryOne symptom of Indian social disorganization was widespread alcoholismGradual Indigenous Integration into Colonial Structures and SocietyHow did indigenous cultures change?