Indo-Europeans Migrate A group of nomadic people who may have come from the steppes (dry grasslands) of the Caucasus Pastoral people Many languages trace their roots to the original Indo-European language For reasons unknown, they began to migrate from the steppes to other locations across Europe and Asia.
Who were the Hittites? Group of Indo-European speakers who populated Anatolia (Modern Turkey) Empire formed by separate city-states around 1650 BC Dominated Southwest Asia by conquering other nations ◦ Superior weapons, chariots, skilled ironworkers Borrowed ideas about literature, art, politics and law from people they came into contact with. Empire fell suddenly from outside attack
Who were the Aryans? Another Indo-European people group Homeland in the Indus River Valley (India) Pastoral people, who counted wealth in cows Organized into a caste (class) system with priests at the top, followed by warriors, traders/landowners and peasants Powerful kingdoms eventually developed, an Aryans began taking over much of the Indian subcontinent
What is Hinduism? Collection of religious beliefs that developed slowly over a long period of time Can not be traced back to one founder with a single set of ideas
What do Hindus believe? See religion as a way of liberating the soul from the illusions, disappointments and mistakes that exist everyday Reincarnation-Being born over and over again until moksha (perfect understanding) is achieved Religion and caste go hand in hand ◦ Karma-Good and bad deeds follow from one reincarnation to the next ◦ Influences caste, health, poverty, etc.
How has Hinduism changed? Original god was Brahman (trinity- creator, protector, destroyer) His importance gradually faded and Mother Goddess grew in importance Hindus are free to choose the deity they worship, or none at all
What is Buddhism? Founded by Siddhartha Gautama Saw suffering in world and realized that only religion offered refuge from suffering Spent his life in search of religious truth and an end to life’s suffering. Sought enlightenment and wisdom ◦ Fasted, eating only six grains of rice a day ◦ Meditated for 49 days ◦ Achieved enlightenment and became known as Buddha
What do Buddhists believe? Four Nobel Truths: ◦ Life is filled with suffering and sorrow ◦ The cause of all suffering is people’s selfish desire for the temporary pleasures of the world ◦ The way to end all suffering is to end all desires ◦ The way to overcome such desires is to attain enlightenment and follow the Eight-Fold Path
What is the Eight-Fold Path? A way to achieve nirvana-releases from selfishness and pain May be achieved over many lives Path ◦ Right views ◦ Right resolve ◦ Right speech ◦ Right conduct ◦ Right livelihood ◦ Right effort ◦ Right mindfulness ◦ Right concentration
How did Buddhism grow? Welcomed people from all castes Also accepted women Missionaries spread religion along trade routes to China Main religion in China today, even though start was in India
What is Judaism? Religion of the ancient Hebrew people We learn their history of the first five books of the Bible(Torah) In this section of the Bible, Yahweh, or God chose Abraham to be the “father” of the Hebrew people The Hebrews were monotheistic or believed in one God God looked after the Hebrews because Abraham had promised to obey him when he made a covenant with God
Moses and the Exodus Hebrews migrated from Egypt because of drought and slavery Hebrews fled Egypt in an event called the Exodus ◦ Remembered yearly by the Passover God chose Moses to lead the Hebrews from Egypt
What are the Ten Commandments? New covenant between the Hebrews and God God would protect people, if they would obey the commandments
What happened to the early Kingdom of Israel? Divided because of discontent under Solomon’s rule Conquered by outside forces Babylonians, led by Nebuchadnezzar, captured Jerusalem
Where did the Hebrews establish their Kingdom? Hebrews divided into tribes, eventually the only major tribe left was the Tribe of Judah, or the Jews United under the Kingdoms of Saul, David and Solomon New Kingdom was called Israel