Presentation on theme: "Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System."— Presentation transcript:
1 Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System
2 Session purpose Describe the cluster approach Identify the global cluster lead agencies and responsibilitiesDescribe how the cluster approach is activatedWill someone volunteer to summarize the key points at the end of this session?
4 Whose reform is it? Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Composed of NGO consortia, Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IOM, World bank and UN agencies
5 4 Pillars of Humanitarian Reform HUMANITARIAN FINANCINGPARTNERSHIP BUILDINGEffective partnerships between UN and non-UN actorsHUMANITARIAN COORDINATORSCLUSTER APPROACHSome prefer to think about three pillars, with partnership not as a pillar but as the the foundation for the other three pillars5
6 Pillar 1: Humanitarian Coordinators Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergenciesEstablish broad-based humanitarian country teamsDevelop a pool of HCs (from UN and non-UN) for short-term and/or immediate deploymentDevelop new training packages for Humanitarian Co-ordinators6
7 Adequate, timely and flexible financing Pillar 2: Humanitarian FinancingAdequate, timely and flexible financingGood Humanitarian Donorship initiativeEstablishment of CERFOther initiatives – i.e. pooled funding (more on this in the “Funding Mechanisms” session)7
8 Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors Pillar 3: The Cluster ApproachAdequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors8
9 Between UN and non-UN actors Pillar 4: Effective PartnershipsBetween UN and non-UN actorsNot so much a 4th pillar as it is the foundation for the other three pillarsBased on experience and belief that:1. The Government has primary role in organizing humanitarian assistance in a disaster (GA Resolution 46/182).No single humanitarian agency can cover all humanitarian needsPartnerships are needed, and form the foundation for all other three pillars.The principles of partnership are based on:EqualityTransparencyResult-oriented approachResponsibilityComplimentarityThese principles were endorsed by the The Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP), created in July The GHP brings together UN and non-UN humanitarian organizations on an equal footing. GHP is a partnership of humanitarian actors whose aim is to maximise complementarity based on different mandates and mission statements and engage in dialogue on issues of common concern, including accountability to populations, strengthening capacity of local actors .… the organizations participating in the Global Humanitarian Platform agree to base their partnership on the principleslisted on this slide.For more information see the Principles for Partnership document. – this can be viewed at9
10 Aims of the Cluster Approach High standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectors or areas of activityResponsibility to include all humanitarian partnersMore strategic and inclusive responsesBetter prioritization of available resourcesStrengthening humanitarian response
11 What is a Cluster?A group of organizations providing services within the same ‘theme’, e.g. health or protection with ONE leadThe cluster ensures overall inclusion of all partners, who can then divide into working or thematic groups (e.g. child protection or gender)Ensures cross-fertilization between organizations working within same ‘theme’ despite different focus (e.g. child protection and SGBV)Ensures a collective agreement and planning for the overall direction of the response within a given ‘theme’Ensures a needs rather than capacity driven response What does this mean?
12 Who are the Global Cluster Leads? AgricultureCCCMEarly RecoveryEducationEmergency ShelterEmergency TelecommunicationsHealthLogisticsNutritionProtectionWASHFAOIOM/UNHCRUNDPUNICEF and Save the ChildrenUNHCR for IDPS from conflict, IFRC for disaster situationsOCHA/UNICEF/WFPWHOWFPUNICEFUNHCR for IDPs from conflict, UNHCR/OHCHR/UNICEF for disasters/civilians affected by conflict other than IDPs
13 What is the difference between refugees and IDPs? Refugees are persons who have fled their home country out of a well-founded fear of persecutionIDPs, internally displaced persons, are those who have left their homes, but not their home country. The term applies to situations of conflict or disaster.So what are Environmental Refugees?
14 What are cross cutting issues? The Cluster Approach has identified several cross cutting issues:AgeEnvironmentGenderHIV/AIDSHuman RightsDisaster Risk Reduction (DRR)
15 Responsibilities of field-based cluster/sector leads (Terms of Reference) Inclusion of key humanitarian partners. Who are they?Coordination with national/local authorities, local civil society etc. How?Participatory and community-based approaches. Examples?Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (age, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS etc) What are the implications of environment being a cross cutting issue?Inclusion of early recovery strategy in sector plans. Example?Ensure capacity building. How?Needs assessment and analysis. What is your role in this?The ToRs constitute one of the biggest differences from the ‘old’ way of doing business – increased accountability, and predictability.Makes it easier to be a cluster lead as the expectations are clear.Read the Operational Guidance Note, and the ToRs annexed.
16 Camp Coordination Camp Management At the global level, CCCM is co-chaired by:UNHCR for conflict-induced IDPsIOM for natural disaster-induced IDPs“…. the CCCM cluster applies to all types of communal shelter including:Camp and camp-like situations Settlements Sites Collective centres existing buildings hosting displaced persons”reform.org16
17 Early Recovery What is Early Recovery? Recovery that starts early, at onset of crisisApplication of development principles to humanitarian situationsEstablishes the foundations of longer-term recoveryGenerates/reinforces nationally owned processes for post-crisis recovery“Early Recovery encompasses the restoration of basic services, livelihoods, shelter, governance, security and the rule of law, environment and social dimensions, including the reintegration of displaced populations. It stabilizes human security and addresses underlying risks that contributed to the crisis.”
18 Logistics In the field, logistics cluster operations are expected to: Fill logistics gaps and alleviate bottlenecksCollect/share information & assetsCoordinate port & corridor movements to reduce congestionProvide details of transporters and rough indication of market ratesProvide guidance on customs issuesProvide information on equipment and/or relief items suppliers
19 Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH) The mission of the WASH cluster is toCompile WASH needs assessment data – identification of priority areas,undertake joint assessment planning and implementation, andmonitor key WASH indicators
20 Activating the Cluster Three possible elements to activate the cluster approach:In response to dramatic events or disastersTo fill major gaps in humanitarian needsBy initiative and guidance of the concerned HC/RCs in consultation with the Country Team members
21 Relationships at country level RC/HCCluster Coord. Group led by OCHAAg CCCM ER Edu Emer Emer Tele Health Logs Nutrition Protection WASHShelterEnv. Advs’r
22 ESC Personnel in an emergency Cluster coordinator - assigned by the cluster lead agency to coordinate the cluster in the emergencyTechnical specialist - supports the cluster coordinator and cluster as a whole and ensures that sound technical advise is adhered to in the operationInformation manager – manages the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data in support of the clusterEnvironment advisor
23 ESC Personnel in an emergency Environment advisors– Inter alia:identify environmental partners,assess environmental impact,coordinate programme implementation,develop strategic plans,provide advice on environmental issues, including for post-emergency phases
25 “A shelter-driven emergency” 303,300 houses destroyed or damaged beyond repair, another 200,000 were damaged and in need of repairStrategic planning: ESC established Sphere-based shelter standards that were adhered to by cluster members.Technical working group for environmental issuesThe ESC was a successful cluster experience
26 Assignment for Tomorrow Before you come to the workshop tomorrow morning it is essential that you have read:Shelter and Nonfood Items Cluster, Tajikistan Compound Disaster Winter 2008 Draft Terms of ReferenceEmergency Shelter Cluster: Shelter Environment Adviser Terms of ReferenceEmergency Shelter Cluster: Emergency Shelter Policy with Regards to Environmental IssuesThese are in your workbook
27 FeedbackPlease discuss what went well today and where you suggest improvementsNominate a representative to summarize your discussion and report it to the facilitators