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Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System.

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Presentation on theme: "Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System."— Presentation transcript:

1 Humanitarian Reform and the Cluster Approach: a Stronger More Predictable Humanitarian Response System

2 Session purpose Describe the cluster approach
Identify the global cluster lead agencies and responsibilities Describe how the cluster approach is activated Will someone volunteer to summarize the key points at the end of this session?

3 The ESC Environmental Advisor’s Universe
Humanitarian Reform The Cluster Approach ESC Environmental Advisor

4 Whose reform is it? Inter-Agency Standing Committee (IASC)
Composed of NGO consortia, Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, IOM, World bank and UN agencies

5 4 Pillars of Humanitarian Reform
HUMANITARIAN FINANCING PARTNERSHIP BUILDING Effective partnerships between UN and non-UN actors HUMANITARIAN COORDINATORS CLUSTER APPROACH Some prefer to think about three pillars, with partnership not as a pillar but as the the foundation for the other three pillars 5

6 Pillar 1: Humanitarian Coordinators
Effective leadership and coordination in humanitarian emergencies Establish broad-based humanitarian country teams Develop a pool of HCs (from UN and non-UN) for short-term and/or immediate deployment Develop new training packages for Humanitarian Co-ordinators 6

7 Adequate, timely and flexible financing
Pillar 2: Humanitarian Financing Adequate, timely and flexible financing Good Humanitarian Donorship initiative Establishment of CERF Other initiatives – i.e. pooled funding (more on this in the “Funding Mechanisms” session) 7

8 Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors
Pillar 3: The Cluster Approach Adequate capacity and predictable leadership in all sectors 8

9 Between UN and non-UN actors
Pillar 4: Effective Partnerships Between UN and non-UN actors Not so much a 4th pillar as it is the foundation for the other three pillars Based on experience and belief that: 1. The Government has primary role in organizing humanitarian assistance in a disaster (GA Resolution 46/182). No single humanitarian agency can cover all humanitarian needs Partnerships are needed, and form the foundation for all other three pillars. The principles of partnership are based on: Equality Transparency Result-oriented approach Responsibility Complimentarity These principles were endorsed by the The Global Humanitarian Platform (GHP), created in July The GHP brings together UN and non-UN humanitarian organizations on an equal footing. GHP is a partnership of humanitarian actors whose aim is to maximise complementarity based on different mandates and mission statements and engage in dialogue on issues of common concern, including accountability to populations, strengthening capacity of local actors . … the organizations participating in the Global Humanitarian Platform agree to base their partnership on the principleslisted on this slide. For more information see the Principles for Partnership document. – this can be viewed at 9

10 Aims of the Cluster Approach
High standards of predictability, accountability and partnership in all sectors or areas of activity Responsibility to include all humanitarian partners More strategic and inclusive responses Better prioritization of available resources Strengthening humanitarian response

11 What is a Cluster? A group of organizations providing services within the same ‘theme’, e.g. health or protection with ONE lead The cluster ensures overall inclusion of all partners, who can then divide into working or thematic groups (e.g. child protection or gender) Ensures cross-fertilization between organizations working within same ‘theme’ despite different focus (e.g. child protection and SGBV) Ensures a collective agreement and planning for the overall direction of the response within a given ‘theme’ Ensures a needs rather than capacity driven response What does this mean?

12 Who are the Global Cluster Leads?
Agriculture CCCM Early Recovery Education Emergency Shelter Emergency Telecommunications Health Logistics Nutrition Protection WASH FAO IOM/UNHCR UNDP UNICEF and Save the Children UNHCR for IDPS from conflict, IFRC for disaster situations OCHA/UNICEF/WFP WHO WFP UNICEF UNHCR for IDPs from conflict, UNHCR/OHCHR/UNICEF for disasters/civilians affected by conflict other than IDPs

13 What is the difference between refugees and IDPs?
Refugees are persons who have fled their home country out of a well-founded fear of persecution IDPs, internally displaced persons, are those who have left their homes, but not their home country. The term applies to situations of conflict or disaster. So what are Environmental Refugees?

14 What are cross cutting issues?
The Cluster Approach has identified several cross cutting issues: Age Environment Gender HIV/AIDS Human Rights Disaster Risk Reduction (DRR)

15 Responsibilities of field-based cluster/sector leads (Terms of Reference)
Inclusion of key humanitarian partners. Who are they? Coordination with national/local authorities, local civil society etc. How? Participatory and community-based approaches. Examples? Attention to priority cross-cutting issues (age, environment, gender, HIV/AIDS etc) What are the implications of environment being a cross cutting issue? Inclusion of early recovery strategy in sector plans. Example? Ensure capacity building. How? Needs assessment and analysis. What is your role in this? The ToRs constitute one of the biggest differences from the ‘old’ way of doing business – increased accountability, and predictability. Makes it easier to be a cluster lead as the expectations are clear. Read the Operational Guidance Note, and the ToRs annexed.

16 Camp Coordination Camp Management
At the global level, CCCM is co-chaired by: UNHCR for conflict-induced IDPs IOM for natural disaster-induced IDPs “…. the CCCM cluster applies to all types of communal shelter including: Camp and camp-like situations  Settlements  Sites  Collective centres existing buildings hosting displaced persons” 16

17 Early Recovery What is Early Recovery?
Recovery that starts early, at onset of crisis Application of development principles to humanitarian situations Establishes the foundations of longer-term recovery Generates/reinforces nationally owned processes for post-crisis recovery “Early Recovery encompasses the restoration of basic services, livelihoods, shelter, governance, security and the rule of law, environment and social dimensions, including the reintegration of displaced populations. It stabilizes human security and addresses underlying risks that contributed to the crisis.”

18 Logistics In the field, logistics cluster operations are expected to:
Fill logistics gaps and alleviate bottlenecks Collect/share information & assets Coordinate port & corridor movements to reduce congestion Provide details of transporters and rough indication of market rates Provide guidance on customs issues Provide information on equipment and/or relief items suppliers

19 Water, Sanitation & Hygiene (WASH)
The mission of the WASH cluster is to Compile WASH needs assessment data – identification of priority areas, undertake joint assessment planning and implementation, and monitor key WASH indicators

20 Activating the Cluster
Three possible elements to activate the cluster approach: In response to dramatic events or disasters To fill major gaps in humanitarian needs By initiative and guidance of the concerned HC/RCs in consultation with the Country Team members

21 Relationships at country level
RC/HC Cluster Coord. Group led by OCHA Ag CCCM ER Edu Emer Emer Tele Health Logs Nutrition Protection WASH Shelter Env. Advs’r

22 ESC Personnel in an emergency
Cluster coordinator - assigned by the cluster lead agency to coordinate the cluster in the emergency Technical specialist - supports the cluster coordinator and cluster as a whole and ensures that sound technical advise is adhered to in the operation Information manager – manages the collection, analysis, and dissemination of data in support of the cluster Environment advisor

23 ESC Personnel in an emergency
Environment advisors– Inter alia: identify environmental partners, assess environmental impact, coordinate programme implementation, develop strategic plans, provide advice on environmental issues, including for post-emergency phases

24 Case Study: Java Earthquake 2006

25 “A shelter-driven emergency”
303,300 houses destroyed or damaged beyond repair, another 200,000 were damaged and in need of repair Strategic planning: ESC established Sphere-based shelter standards that were adhered to by cluster members. Technical working group for environmental issues The ESC was a successful cluster experience

26 Assignment for Tomorrow
Before you come to the workshop tomorrow morning it is essential that you have read: Shelter and Nonfood Items Cluster, Tajikistan Compound Disaster Winter 2008 Draft Terms of Reference Emergency Shelter Cluster: Shelter Environment Adviser Terms of Reference Emergency Shelter Cluster: Emergency Shelter Policy with Regards to Environmental Issues These are in your workbook

27 Feedback Please discuss what went well today and where you suggest improvements Nominate a representative to summarize your discussion and report it to the facilitators

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