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Chapter 21: Alternatives to Modernism

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1 Chapter 21: Alternatives to Modernism
Béla Bartók

2 Key Terms Neoclassicism Nationalism Folk music Sonata form

3 Music and Totalitarianism
Nazi Germany & Stalin’s Soviet Union Composers had to be ideologically correct Art must speak to “das Volk” or the proletariat Bourgeois modernism was rejected & banned Hitler promoted Beethoven & Wagner Jazz, Jewish, & modernist music forbidden Schoenberg, Weill, & Bartók fled Stalin knew what he liked when he heard it Musorgsky’s Boris Godunov spoke to people Shostakovich & Prokofiev often censured

4 Béla Bartók The outstanding 20th century nationalist
Influenced by Liszt, Strauss, & Debussy Comprehensive integration of folk music into melody, harmony, tonality, & rhythm Gave his music a unique, earthy sound Some earlier works strongly modernist Allegro barbaro, String Quartet No. 4 Later works became more accessible Used Classical forms & Romantic references Concerto for Orchestra , 3 piano concertos, String Quartet No. 6, Violin Concerto No. 2

5 Béla Bartók (1881-1945) Trained as musician from early age
Wide-ranging career Prolific composer & fine pianist An educational innovator with Kodály Mikrokosmos series for piano students Investigation of Hungarian (& other) folk music Huge number of ethnomusicological studies Many folk-song & folk-dance arrangements Strongly opposed to the Nazis Fled to U.S. in 1940 as situation deteriorated

6 Bartók, Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta
A kind of informal symphony For 2 string orchestras, piano, harp, celesta, timpani, & other percussion Some features of Classical symphony 4 movements, a sonata-form fast movement, & a rondo-like finale But many unique features as well Slow-fast-slow-fast movement plan, folk influences, novel two-orchestra dialogue, percussive use of strings & piano, & special coloration of percussion & celesta

7 Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, II (1)
Fast tempo sonata-form movement Exposition, development, recapitulation, coda Multiple themes in second group

8 Music for Strings, Percussion, and Celesta, II (2)
Music bubbles over with great variety A rush of melodic tags, vital rhythms, folk-dance fragments, & novel percussion sounds As in Beethoven, themes built from motives Imitative polyphony & a fugue in development Timpani plays a powerful role throughout Rhythms often show Stravinsky’s influence

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