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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 1 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 2 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Using Thermodynamic Tables

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 3 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Saturated Liquid and Saturated vapor States A4 & A5

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 4 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water The two-phase region for water p Saturated Liquid V Saturated Vapor Critical Point

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FIGURE 2-30 A partial list of Table A–4. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2-10

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Enthalpy What does hfg represent? –Total amount of energy to change a saturated liquid to a saturated vapor –Enthalpy of vaporization or latent heat of vaporization.

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 7 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Saturated Liquid-Vapor Mixtures

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 8 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Quality...

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 9 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Liquid-vapor equilibrium Liquid at P,T Surroundings Vapor at P,T

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 10 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for WaterQuality

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 11 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Quality defined Quality, x, allows location of states inside the vapor-liquid region. p V

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 12 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for WaterQuality

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 13 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Internal energy in the vapor-liquid region The same holds for specific enthalpy, h

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 14 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Superheated Vapor Characterized by… p83 Table A6

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FIGURE 2-40 A partial listing of Table A–6. Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 2-11

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 16 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Compressed Liquid Characterized by… p84 Tables A7 or A4 & A5 Can treat as saturated liquid at Temperature. Exception is enthalpy

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 17 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Reference States and Values For energies, entropies, and enthalpies, can only calculate changes and can’t measure. Must pick a zero point. –for water, saturated liquid at 0.01°C –for refrigerant-134a, saturated liquid at -40°C OK as long as you are consistent.

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 18 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water EQUATIONS OF STATE FOR GASES: Equation that relates the pressure, temperature, and specific Volume of a substance. Gas vs. vapor?

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 19 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Definition of gas...

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 20 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Fluids and gasses A liquid will take the shape of its container but exhibits a free surface. A liquid will take the shape of its container but exhibits a free surface. A gas will fill its container completely and does not exhibit a free surface. A gas will fill its container completely and does not exhibit a free surface.

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 21 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water The ideal gas...

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 22 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water P-V-T relation for ideal gases T1T1T1T1 T2T2T2T2 T3T3T3T3 p Bar means on a molar basis

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 23 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water The ideal gas equation of state This implies: (1) very little molecular interaction (p 0),and (2) molecules are point masses, i.e., zero volume.

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 24 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water The universal gas constant M = Molecular weight, kg/kmol or lbm/lbmol. Universal – p88 (2-11) Specific – Table A-1 p824

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 25 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water The ideal gas state surface Ideal Gas State Surfacep V T

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Instructor’s Visual Aids Heat Work and Energy. A First Course in Thermodynamics © 2002, F. A. Kulacki Chapter 2 Module 2 Slide 26 Additional Aspects for the P-V-T Surface for Water Water?

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Copyright © The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. FIGURE 2-49 Percentage of error involved in assuming steam to be an ideal gas, and the region where steam can be treated as an ideal gas with less than 1 percent error. 2-12

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