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Published byCynthia Soley Modified over 5 years ago

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Click the mouse to continue. Relative references Absolute referencesMixed references

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Click the mouse to continue. Relative references When you copy a formula that contains cell references, Excel automatically adjusts the cell references for the new locations.

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Click the mouse to continue. Absolute references If you want a cell reference to point to the same location in the worksheet when you copy it, you must use an absolute cell reference. Absolute reference to cell A2 The formula in cell C4 multiplies B4 by the value in cell A2.

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Click the mouse to continue. Absolute references Because the formula in cell C4 contains an absolute reference to cell A2, when you copy the formula to cells C5 through C7, it still multiplies by the value in A2.

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Click the mouse to continue. Creating absolute references To create an absolute reference, you insert a dollar sign ($) before the column and row of the cell reference. Absolute cell reference Relative cell reference

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Click the mouse to continue. Mixed cell references A cell can also have a mixed reference, such as $B5. When you copy a formula with a mixed reference like this, the row number changes, but the column letter does not. Mixed reference Because cell C5 contains the mixed reference $B5, the copied formula refers to B7.

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Click the mouse to continue. Mixed references If the formula in cell C5 did not have a mixed reference, it would refer to C7, not B7—Excel would adjust the relative reference to cell B5 by referring to the cell one column over and two rows down from cell B5. Relative reference changes the column and the row numbers when copied.

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