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DNA RNA Double stranded molecule Contains thymine

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Presentation on theme: "DNA RNA Double stranded molecule Contains thymine"— Presentation transcript:

1 DNA RNA Double stranded molecule Contains thymine
Contains deoxyribose sugar - Found only in nucleus Single stranded molecule Contains uracil Contains ribose sugar - Found in nucleus and cytoplasm Made of nucleotides - Contain adenine, guanine, and cytosine

2 Nucleotides DNA = Double stranded Instructions for making proteins
RNA = Single stranded WORKERS for making proteins DNA: G, C, A, or T RNA: G, C, A, or U DNA: Deoxyribose RNA: Ribose


4 Interphase G1 = Growth S = DNA Replication
Helicase breaks H bonds between DNA strands DNA polymerase uses original strands as a pattern Base Pairing: G = C A = T Result = 2 identical molecules of DNA each with 1 original strand and 1 new strand Needed for mitosis (each cell needs copy of DNA) G2 = Preparation for cell division (M phase)

5 Cell Cycle

6 M Phase Mitosis = division of the nucleus
Prophase = Nucleolus disappears ; Nuclear membrane dissolves; Chromatin condenses into chromosomes; Spindle forms Metaphase = Chromosomes attach to the spindle & are pulled into the MIDDLE (equator) Anaphase = Sister chromatids are pulled apart to opposite poles of the cell Telophase = Spindle breaks down; Chromosomes (sister chromatids) unwind into Chromatin; Nuclear membrane reforms; Nucleolus reappears Cytokinesis = division of same time as Telophase Result = 2 identical daughter cells


8 Protein Synthesis Transcription (1st step = in nucleus)
The enzyme RNA polymerase copies the gene (DNA) into the complimentary sequence of mRNA Base Pairing: G = C A = U mRNA leaves the nucleus Translation (2nd step = in ribosome) mRNA goes to the Ribosome & is decoded by tRNA using the codons on mRNA & the anticodons on tRNA 3 nitrogen bases = 1 codon = 1 amino acid tRNA delivers (transfers) the correct amino acids to the ribosome rRNA (ribosome) forms peptide bonds between the amino acids to build the polypeptide (protein)



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