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Objectivity and constitutive modelling Fülöp 2, T., Papenfuss 3, C. and Ván 12, P. 1 RMKI, Dep. Theor. Phys., Budapest, Hungary 2 Montavid Research Group, Budapest, Hungary 3 TU Berlin, Berlin, Germany – Objectivity – contra Noll – Kinematics – rate definition – Frame independent Liu procedure – Second and third grade solids (waves)

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Rigid rotating frames: Noll (1958) Four-transformations, four-Jacobian: where Problems with the traditional formulation

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Consequences: four-velocity is an objective vector, time cannot be avoided, transformation rules are not convenient, why rigid rotation? arbitrary reference frames reference frame INDEPENDENT formulation!

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What is non-relativistic space-time? M=E I? M=R 3 R? E I

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The aspect of spacetime: Special relativity: no absolute time, no absolute space, absolute spacetime; three-vectors → four-vectors, x(t) → world line (curve in the 4-dimensional spacetime). The nonrelativistic case (Galileo, Weyl): absolute time, no absolute space, spacetime needed (t’ = t, x’ = x − vt) 4-vectors:, world lines: (4-coordinates w.r.t. an inertial coordinate system K) The spacelike 4-vectors are absolute: form a 3-dimensional Euclidean vector space.

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X a =(t 0,X i ) x a =(t,x i ) World lines of a body – material manifold? deformation gradient

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Objective derivative of a vector Upper convected Tensorial property (order, co-) determines the form of the derivative.

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Spacetime-allowed quantities: the velocity field v [the 4-velocity field ], its integral curves (world lines of material points), The problem of reference time: is the continuum completely relaxed, undisturbed, totally free at t 0, at every material point? In general, not → incorrect for reference purpose. The physical role of a strain tensor: to quantitatively characterize not a change but a state: not to measure a change since a t 0 but to express the difference of the current local geometric status from the status in a fully relaxed, ideally undisturbed state. Kinematics

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What one can have in general for a strain tensor: a rate equation + an initial condition (which is the typical scheme for field quantities, actually) Spacetime requirements → the change rate of strain is to be determined by ∂ i v j Example: instead of from now on: + initial condition (e.g. knowing the initial stress and a linear elastic const. rel.) Remark: the natural strain measure rate equation is generalized left Cauchy-Green

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Frame independent constitutive theory: variables: spacetime quantities (v!) body related rate definition of the deformation balances: frame independent spacetime relations pull back to the body (reference time!) Entropy flux is constitutive! Question: fluxes?

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Constitutive theory of a second grade elastic solid Balances: material space derivative T i j first Piola-Kirchhoff stress Constitutive space: Constitutive functions: Remark:

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Second Law: Consequences: Function restrictions: - Internal energy Dissipation inequality:

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Constitutive theory of a third grade elastic solid Balances: Constitutive functions: Constitutive space: Second Law:

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Consequences: Function restrictions: - Internal energy Dissipation inequality: Double stress

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Waves- 1d Quadratic energy – without isotropy - Stable - Dispersion relation

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Summary - Noll is wrong. - Aspects of non-relativistic spacetime cannot be avoided. - Deformation and strain – wordline based rate definition. - Gradient elasticity theories are valid.

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Thank you for your attention! Continuum Physics and Engineering Applications 2010 June

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Real world – Second Law is valid Impossible world – Second Law is violated Ideal world – there is no dissipation Thermodinamics - Mechanics

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Galileo simply described this as the fact that an observer in motion sees things differently from a stationary observer We use this as a part of our everyday.

Galileo simply described this as the fact that an observer in motion sees things differently from a stationary observer We use this as a part of our everyday.

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