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By: Tony Andrews.  Linux directory ordering system  Navigating and creating directories ◦ Listing directories and files ◦ Creating directories ◦ Changing.

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Presentation on theme: "By: Tony Andrews.  Linux directory ordering system  Navigating and creating directories ◦ Listing directories and files ◦ Creating directories ◦ Changing."— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Tony Andrews

2  Linux directory ordering system  Navigating and creating directories ◦ Listing directories and files ◦ Creating directories ◦ Changing directories ◦ Removing directories  Managing files ◦ Displaying content of a file ◦ Copying files ◦ Moving files ◦ Removing files ◦ Searching the content of a file

3  Wildcards and general searches ◦ Wildcard “*” and “?” ◦ Find  Access rights to files  Processes ◦ Listing processes ◦ Killing processes  Finding more help with commands in command window. ◦ Manual ◦ Whatis ◦ Apropos

4  The linux operating system is built like a tree. ◦ Top directory is the root directory “/” ◦ Followed by other ones like home etc. ◦ Music is located at: /Home/Tony/Music (Stonebank)

5  Command “ls” lists all of the files and directories in the current directory. ◦ Ie.)  The command “ls –a” lists all of the files and some hidden files that start with “.” or “..”  Command “ls –l” is a long list which shows all of the files and directories as well as how large they are and when they were created. ◦ Ie.) (stonebank)

6  The command “mkdir name” creates a directory within the current directory. ◦ Ex.) “mkdir oldmusic” creates the directory called “oldmusic” within the current directory.  The command “cd.” stays in the current directory.  The command “cd dirname” changes to a new directory within the current one. ◦ Ex.) ◦ To move back up from the “oldmusic” directory to the directory before it enter the command “cd..” (Stonebank)

7  To list the current pathway in the directory tree use the command “pwd”. ◦ Ex.) ◦ To navigate to any directory in the tree enter the command: “cd ~/name(1)/name(2)/…/name(n)”  Ex.) (Stonebank)

8  Once a directory is created, it can be removed by using “rmdir”, however the directory has to be empty first. ◦ Multiple directories can be removed by using spaces between each directory.  Ex.) “rmdir directory1 directory2” removes both directory 1 and 2. (Stonebank)

9  Displaying content of a file in the command window can be done a few different ways. ◦ To display the entire file type: “cat filename”  For example, “cat science.txt” would display the whole science.txt document.  Kind of hard to read. ◦ To have the file display better on the command window type: “less filename”  “less science.txt” would display science.txt in a way that is easier to see in the window.  Instead of using the arrow keys or a scroll on a mouse you press the space bar and get out of the document view by pressing the Q key. (Stonebank)

10 ◦ The “head file” command shows the first ten lines of a file and the “tail file” command shows the last ten lines of a file.  The number of lines shown for both commands can be specified by using “head –n file” or “tail –n file” where n is any number less than or equal to the number of lines in the file.  Multiple files can be seen at the same time.  Ex.) Want to display the first 16 lines of 2 separate documents “science.txt” and “zebras.txt”. Type in:  “head -16 science.txt zebras.txt”. Both documents with 16 lines in the beginning of each will be the output. ◦ All of these displaying commands only work if the files are in the same directory.  Copying files ◦ To copy a file use the “cp” command

11 ◦ When a file is copied within the same directory, it is saved under a different file name but has the same content, and the original is still in the directory with it.  Ex.) “cp file1 file2” copies the content of file1 into a new file2. ◦ To copy a file to a new directory type:  “cp file1 directory/”  Moving files ◦ To move a file use: “mv” command. ◦ Moving a file within the same directory is another way of renaming a file. ◦ To move a file to another directory type:  “mv file1 directory/” (Stonebank)

12  Removing files ◦ Use the command “rm”.  Ex.) “rm file1” removes file1 from the system.  Searching files ◦ To search a given file for any keyword type: “grep ‘keyword’ file”  Ex.) Typing “grep science science.txt” outputs all of the lines of the document which contain the word science with s in a lowercase.  “grep” can be combined with –i, -v, -n, or –c to narrow the search.  Typing “grep –i ‘keyword’ file” ignores whether keyword is uppercase or not and outputs all the lines which contain the word. (Stonebank)

13  Typing “grep –v ‘keyword’ file” ignores the keyword and outputs all lines without it.  “grep –n ‘keyword’ file” gives the line number and the line with the keyword.  Finally “grep –c ‘keyword’ file” gives the total number of lines with the keyword. ◦ “grep” can be combined with some or all of the letters to narrow the search more.  Ex.) “grep –ivc science science.txt” ignores all instances of the word science with any case and produces the total number of lines in the document without the word science. (Stonebank)

14  Wildcards are used with list commands to search for specific files in a directory. ◦ Wildcard “*” is used before or after a filename.  Ex.) “ls *ide” lists all of the instances of files ending with ide, and “ls ide*” lists all files beginning with ide. ◦ Wildcard “?” is used in a keyword to represent one letter out of that word.  Ex.) “ls ?one” lists all files that have 4 letters ending in “one” like bone but not drone or stone.  The command “find” is a general search of the directories. ◦ Ex.) find. -name "*.txt" –print  starts with the current directory (. ) and then moves through the lower directories to find any file than ends in.txt and lists them in the command window. (Stonebank)

15  A file is made with certain access rights, which means that one can either read, write, or execute it. However, some files are programed in such a way that they can’t be tampered with.  The access rights are shown by using the command: “ls –l” ◦ The output code describing the access rights is given on the far left of the output  Ex.) The output for a file called “biglist.txt” is  -rw-rw-rw-. 1 tony tony 68 Jan 31 21:57 biglist.txt  -rw-rw-rw- is the access rights for the file, the left most space indicates whether or not it is a file, directory, or something else. The 9 spaces after that indicate access rights for the user, group, or any others that have access to the file. (Stonebank)

16  The “chmod” command allows you to customize access rights for a file. ◦ Ex.) “chmod go-rwx biglist.txt” means that groups or others can’t read or write the file biglist.txt. ◦ The negative sign before rwx removed the read, write, and execute access rights for groups and others. But left the user rights unchanged. ◦ Putting a positive sign before rwx would add those rights for groups and others. (Stonebank)

17  The command “ps” lists all the processes that are running either in the foreground or background. ◦ It lists things like the process identification number (PID) on the far left side and the commands on the far right hand side for each process  Ex.) (Stonebank)

18  To kill a process determine the PID by entering the command “ps”, then “kill PID” ◦ Ex.)

19  The command “man ‘commandname’” gives a manual for any command. It gives a couple paragraphs on what the command is and common uses. ◦ Ex.) “man cp” gives the manual for the copy command.  The command “whatis ‘command’” gives a couple uses for the command and short descriptions for each command. ◦ Ex.)

20  The command “apropos ‘keyword’” can be used if you forget a command. ◦ Ex.) “apropos move” gives all commands involving the word move in a description. (Stonebank)

21  Stonebank, Michael. "UNIX Tutorial for Beginners" UNIX Tutorial for Beginners, 19 Oct 2001. Web. 2 Feb 2011..  riehemann, susanne. "Basic UNIX commands." Basic UNIX commands. Computing Information for Stanford Linguists, 07 Nov 2001. Web. 3 Feb 2011..

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